Header: Buddha statues in Ellora Caves, Mumbai.
Top row: (1) Statue of a Buddha (Enlightened One) in Bodhgaya, India. (2) Kubera, Indian god of wealth. Date unknown. LACMA Photo by Runoko Rashidi. (3) The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India, comprise of 300 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which easily predate the 2nd century BCE to about 480 or 650 CE. Picture courtesy of Dr. Runoko Rashidi. (4) Group of statues in Elephanta caves, India.
Bottom row: (1) Buddha carving. (2) Magnificent sculpture of Vishnu, 6th century A.C.E. (3) A Dravidian youth in South India. Photo courtesy of Runoko Rashidi. (4) An iconographic representation of the great Mahabharata epic, which is a paramount sculpture of the Gupta period. Asleep on the coils of the serpent, Ananta is Vishnu in the form of Krsna (Krishna).
“The religion of Buddha of India is well known to have been very ancient. In the most ancient temples scattered throughout Asia, where his worship is yet continued, he is found Black as jet, with the flat face, thick lips and curly hair of the Negro. Several statues of him may be met within the museum of the East India Company.”
Godfrey Higgins, Anacalypsis
In his book Anacalypsis the European scholar Godfrey Higgins investigates ancient world religions and discovers that they were all originally one, regardless of the native mythologies, local cultural expressions, and later corrupt manifestations. This “one” religion or “secret doctrine” was the esoteric knowledge that was commonly known to the priesthood of the ancient world.
In this work Higgins also expresses another unifying theme, and that is all the recognised religions of the remote ancient world, including Egyptian and Indian, belonged to a Black race with superior religious knowledge, a common knowledge “...founded on principles sublime, beautiful and true.” Higgins asserts this claim with the following observation:
“We have found the black complexion or something relating to it whenever we have approached the origin of nations. The Alma Mater, the goddess Multimammia, the founders of oracles, the Memnons or first idols, were always black. Venus, Juno, Jupiter, Apollo, Bacchus, Hercules, Asteroth, Adonis, Horus, Apis, Osiris, Ammon, in short all the wood and stone deities were black. The images remain as they were first made in very remote time.”
With regards to India, Higgins leaves you with no uncertainty as to what he thinks is India’s original inhabitant’s racial type when he describes one of India’s most famous deities Buddha as “...very ancient...black as jet, with the flat face, thick lips and curly hair of the Negro.”
Higgins, however, was not the only person to recognise India’s Black African origins and its original Black African civilisations. Gerald Massey in his book A book of the Beginnings, Vol.1 emphatically stated:
“...It is not necessary to show that the first colonisers of India were negroes, but it is certain that the black Buddha of India was imaged in the negroid type. In the black negro god, whether called Buddha or Sut-Nahsi, we have a datum. They carry in their colour the proof of their origin. The people who first fashioned and worshipped the divine image in the negroid mould of humanity must according to all knowledge of human nature, have been negroes themselves. For the blackness is not merely mystical, the features and the hair of Buddha belong to the black race, and Nahsi is the negro name. The genetrix represented as the Dea Multimammae, the Diana of Ephesus, is found as a black figure, nor is the hue mystical only, for the features are as negroid as were those of the black Isis in Egypt.”
In addition, the Greek historian Herodotus (ca. 450 B.C.E.) was quoted by Higgins in Anacalypsis with the following revealing passage:
“...and upon his return to Greece they gathered around and asked, “Tell us about this great land of the Blacks called Ethiopia.” And Herodotus said, “There are two great Ethiopian nations, one in Sind (India) and the other in Egypt.”
Western historians, archaeologists and anthropologists use many arbitrary and often deliberately misleading and racially motivated terms to describe populations in Asia with Africoid phenotypes, cultural traits and traditions. Such questionable labels as Proto-Australoid, Eurafricans, Proto-Negroid, Negroid, Negritic, Negrito, Negrillos, Hamites, Mediterraneans and the Brown Race are the dubious, confusing and “unscientific” terminology commonly employed to denote clearly discernible Black populations.
A very good example of an anthropological fiasco disguised as “science” can be found in the marvellous publication African Presence in Early Asia, in which author and historian Wayne B. Chandler notes the work of two anthropologists B.K. Chatterjee and G.D. Kumar that examined skeletons in the Indus Valley or Harappan region of India. The anthropologists compared the mean values of different cranial, facial, nasal and orbital measurements with those of prehistoric skulls found in other countries. In particular, an interesting point was made regarding some “Mediterranean” skulls found at Chanhu-Daro. On the basis of cranial measurements, indices and certain morphological features, long head, broad face, low orbit, and broad nasal aperture, these skulls were placed with the Proto-Mediterranean type. However, they then went on to note that the long head is not only the characteristic feature of the Proto-Mediterranean type nor is it solely an attribute of the Caucasic groups; it is also the characteristic feature of the Negroid type.
Chatterjee and Kumar also noted that two archaeologists, Friederichs and Muller, have identified three skulls of Mohenjo-Daro as “Hamitic.” These same skulls were identified as “Mediterranean” by a different team of archaeologists, Sewell and Guha. Chatterjee and Kumar go on to state that: “This type was classified by Sergi as Mediterranean. Hamitic by Poch, the Predynastic by Giuffrida-Rugger, the Proto. Egyptian by Elliot Smith, Iranic by Dirr, the Oriental by Fischer, the Nordoide by Lebzelter, and the Eastern Mediterranean and Indide by Eickstedt.” Finally, Chatteljee and Kumar reported that, in their opinion, “this type of skull is similar to Ariba skulls ... from Nubia during the third to second millennium B.C.”
On this archaeological and anthropological debacle Chandler commented:
“After considering this archaeological doubletalk, one must recognize the dilemma existing in communities of anthropologists around the world. Evidence requires that these scholars accept the fact that black people, in ancient times, populated and influenced areas of the world other than Africa. This reality has been difficult for many to accept.
A tribal man (Adivasi) from South India. Photo courtesy of Runoko Rashidi.
A family member of the Kerala Dalit Panthers. Photo courtesy of Runoko Rashidi.
A Jarawa in the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean. A descendant of the first people to migrate from Africa into Asia. Photo courtesy of Runoko Rashidi.
Consequently, the somewhat fraudulent practice of creating unnecessary names and categories has evolved. In my opinion, the other appellations only serve to obscure the true racial identity of the skulls at hand. Thus we have encountered nine different categorizations for a skull which had its origins in Nubia 5000 years ago.”
The Black African origins of India’s original civilisations would explain the rather strange contradictory features of modern Buddha statues, whereby the facial features are that of a European or Asian type but the hairstyle is cornrowed or knotted and obviously African. What European or Asian possesses hairstyles of this nature? It highlights the desperate need for modern European or Asian artist to depict Buddha as one of their own, however, being unable to move away from the classic and distinctive African hairstyle and likewise origin. In addition, the authentic ancient Buddha statues are often represented with unusually long ears, which is another unique African feature. A more detailed discussion of this topic will be presented later.
It should be made clear, at this stage, that Buddha is not a name of an individual; it is a title which means the Enlightened or Awakened One. Which is similar to the term Christ, which is also a title and not a name, meaning the Anointed One or Anointed. Moreover, “Buddhism” did not originate with the historical Siddhattha Gautama Buddha of 600 B.C.E., he had six mortal predecessors, recognised by India, China, Tibet and Nepal. One of them being Kassapa (Pali) who was the sixth of the six Buddhas prior to Gautama. “Buddhism” the modern name or religion arose from a very much earlier source of pure uncorrupted esoteric practise with none of the contemporary “labels” or “isms”. Higgins alludes to its remote antiquity as well as its racial origin with this intriguing statement:
“There were two Ethiopians, one to the east of the Red Sea, and the other to the west of it; and a very great nation of Blacks from India, did rule over almost all Asia in a very remote era, in fact beyond the reach of history or any of our records.”
One of the problems with contemporary labelling such as “Buddhism” is that they are usually attached to a specific era or time. “The Buddha” and “Buddhism”, for example, are often used interchangeably and are naturally attached to Gautama of the sixth or fifth century B.C.E. This date is then used by researchers for the purpose of historical construction.
Incidentally, this is the same Buddha that was born on December 25th to a virgin mother (Maya or Mary), as was Krishna of India, Mithra of Iran, Horus of Egypt and Jesus the Christ. However, Gautama, as previously mentioned, had six mortal predecessors going back to a time of unknown date, therefore, attaching a specific date to the culture or an image is impossible. “Buddhism,” the label or religion did not become established in China until 65 A.C.E. many thousands of years after the actual unlabelled practice was first employed. Regardless of whether these predecessors were real or mythological, it is obvious that there were previous Buddhas prior to Gautama according to tradition. Therefore, based on these facts, to use an image of a Buddha as a basis for a post sixth century B.C.E. hypothesis would be wholly inaccurate and nonsensical, since the Buddha image may well have often been employed by the early Indian artists well before Gautama of 600 B.C.E.
Furthermore, since we have now established that Buddha is a title and not an individual, the validity of the story of the legendary historical Buddha becomes questionable. This term originally referred to the numerous adepts that had successfully undergone training in order to become a “Buddha” or an “Enlightened One.” The spiritual practise was designed so that any worthy individual could realise this potential that exists internally, and there was no reliance on any external figure, such as “Buddha.” It becomes apparent that this initial concept later became corrupted and designated to a fictitious person, thus removing the power away from the individual and mass population in general and into the hands of a few elite aristocrats. Again, this area shall be discussed in greater detail later.
The most popular view amongst historians is that the Dravidians were the first people of the Indus Valley civilisations, and gave birth to ancient India’s classical culture. However, there is substantial evidence to suggest that this is not the case. The Dravidians are distinguished by both ethnic group and linguistic group. Ethnically, they are characterised by straight to wavy hair textures combined with Africoid physical features. They are often exceptionally dark to light brown skinned. Linguistically, Dravidian encompasses an important family of languages spoken by more than a hundred million people, mainly in South India. These languages include Tamil (the largest element), Kannada, Malayalam (from which the name of the Asian country Malaya is derived), Telegu and Tulu.
Scholars such as A.L. Basham and Wayne B. Chandler contend that the Dravidians are the result of mixing with Mediterraneans that entered the Indus Valley around 500 B.C.E.
They theorise that these Mediterraneans came from the West and travelled by sea. Basham states that the Mediterranean element spread throughout the subcontinent and mixing with the indigenous people, formed the Dravidians. Chandler’s view is that the Indus Valley was purely populated by a meshing, as he puts it, of the Ethiopian Negrito [Black African] and Proto-Australoid (Black and Platyrrhine - having a broad nose with widely separated nostrils). Chandler does note, however, that “the original layer consisted of Ethiopian Blacks known as Negritos.” His support for a pre-Dravidian Indus Valley population is based on the dates involved. The Mediterranean influx that fathered the Dravidians did not occur until around the latter half of the first millennium B.C.E., which, he says, is inferred from the age of the Dravidian megaliths.
The Indus Valley (Harappan) civilisations have been dated to at least 3000 to 2500 B.C.E., which is, of course, much older. Chandler acknowledges that due to apparent similarities between the Indus Valley (Harappan) script and the writing of certain Dravidian sub-groups, some historians believe that the term Harappan and Dravidian should be synonymous. However, he goes on to say:
“Due to the late construction of the Dravidian megaliths, I believe that the Dravidians were the inheritors of the Harappan [Indus Valley] script rather than its originators. Similarly, he notes: “Harappan science and philosophy far predates the Dravidian’s arrival in India; although they later absorbed these elements; Yoga and Jainism originated thousands of years prior to the Dravidian migration.”
Based on this evidence it is clear that the Indus Valley civilisations was not originally peopled and developed by Dravidians but merely Negrito Ethiopians (Black Africans). Taking into account the sculptures and images, historical accounts, the clear evidence of the close relationship between the African continent and India, and typical African cultural traditions practiced. In addition, being humanities original people, at all points the Black African prototype must be accounted for and considered whenever the origin of not just nations but also of its civilisations are examined. Moreover, much of the historical dating appears to be conjecture at best. I further suggest that due to the deliberate falsification of world history, the number of years that have passed, and varying levels of racial infusion, that has led to the dominance of the Dravidian racial type today, this view has now become difficult to accept for many. On this point, it is interesting that to some notable scholars, Buddha is the most ancient Indian deity.
On the subject of Buddha’s age, author and historian Drusilla Dunjee Houston wrote:
“Buddhism and Brahmanism are typical of the intermingled races from which they have come. Buddhism arose from the more ancient civilisation. The older temples of India are to Buddha. His worship was anterior to that of Brahma. In the Ramayana they are spoken of as opponents. Buddhism was older than Buddha-Gautama, who was only one of the incarnations of the old faith...”
However, let us keep this simple, the statues, temple reliefs, artefacts, cultural traditions, historical accounts, and scientific studies of DNA tracing all of humanity’s origins back to Africa; clearly show that Asia’s original inhabitants and civilisation builders were Black African, and what has happened over thousands of years is mixing of the original Black population with Aryans or whites to “varying degrees,” mainly due to invasions. In fact, when studied, a pattern of aggressive invasions by nomadic White tribes against native Blacks can be seen globally. Historians such as Godfrey Higgins, Gerald Massey, Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Ephorus and many others did not have the difficulty that apparently many of today’s Western historians and anthropologists have in acknowledging what they knew to be the obvious truth; that Black Africans were not only the first people of Asia but they also created, nurtured or influenced some of ancient Asia's most important and enduring classical civilizations. This includes the Sumerian civilization of early Iraq, the Indus Valley civilization and the civilizations of Angkor and Champa in Southeast Asia.
One historian Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, whilst acknowledging India’s Black African origin, claimed: “owing to their primitive state, the Negritos do not appear to have contributed anything of importance to the civilisation of India.” Bharatiya, however, obviously did not read or refuses to acknowledge the historical accounts from the aforementioned eminent historians, or, more importantly, did not see or refuses to acknowledge the many Negroid sculptures, frescoes and temple reliefs that clearly show typical African features and cultural traits.
This “selective amnesia” syndrome appears to be a common phenomenon amongst many historians. On this amazingly bewildering statement Chandler commented:
“Such a statement appears incongruous to the point of absurdity. Only ignorance could prevent a historian from seeing the indelible connection between the original African presence and later civilisation...Bharatiya later sows the seeds to his own counterargument: in reference to Gupta sculpture and the Ajanta frescoes he states: “Negrito elements or traits, judging from some racial types depicted in the art of Gupta and post-Gupta India, seem to have survived to a very late period, but now they have been almost wholly eliminated.” Through his acknowledgement of the wilful and systematic destruction and mutilation of Negrito art, he apparently unwittingly supports the very point he seeks to deny. The Negrito images he refers to were created by the Negritos themselves, in their own image, during the time that the Negritos constituted the dominant race...The Mathrian school of iconography responsible for many of the frescoes had very disciplined standards regarding proportion. The stone workers drew upon two main traditional sources: Firstly their own experience in the making of images…whether gods or royal heroes, and secondly, upon the indications given in literary traditions. Thus, the statues’ kinky hair, whether tightly curled, locked or braided, thick lips and broad noses can be accepted as accurate portrayals of existing people. In spite of defaced statues, it is nevertheless apparent that these elements occur regularly in artistic rendition dating...
...from the Bronze Age to those of the 6th century A.D.; even later statues from medieval India occasionally show Negrito features. The prevalence of Negrito traits over many millenniums cries Bharatiya’s disparagement of their influence.”
The native Black Indian civilisations in northern India experienced a succession of brutal, aggressive and determined invasions by horse riding nomadic White barbarians around 1500 B.C.E, that eventually brought about their demise. After subjugating most of northern India, these invaders introduced a rigid caste system as the basis for a new social and political order. The Whites (Aryans) were top of the caste system, the mixed in the middle and the Blacks, known as Sudras were made the lowest caste and essentially reduced to slaves for the services imposed upon them by their White conquerors.
The Aryans were violent Indo-Europeans tribes from the region of central Eurasia and later Iran. Iran actually means “land of the Aryan.”
This caste system was so unashamedly and overtly racist that the Aryan term “varna,” which denotes social status and is used interchangeably with “caste,” literally means colour or complexion and reflects racial and thereby social hierarchy. Although there were certain elements of the Black aristocracy that managed to gain some prominence within the White society, the overwhelming masses of Blacks or Sudras were regarded as being outside of God’s grace. This vicious system of oppression affected all areas of life for the poor Sudra, such as education, residency, occupation, diet and relationships.
In fact, it was written:
“A Sudra [Black] who intentionally reviles twice-born men [Whites] by criminal abuse, or criminally assaults them with blows, shall be deprived of the limb with which he offends. If he has criminal intercourse with an Aryan [White] woman, his organ shall be cut off, and all his property confiscated. If the woman has a protector, the Sudra shall be executed. If he listens intentionally to a recitation of the Veda [a traditional Hindu religious text], his tongue shall be cut out. If he commits them to memory his body shall be split in half.”
The life of a Sudra was a life of servitude to the White occupying barbarians. Indeed, this racist attitude is still prevalent in India today. The top castes are the Aryans (Whites) and consist of the Brahmins, who reserve the physical and manual labour for the lower caste, whilst living a life of pleasure and leisure for themselves. The Kshatriyas are the warrior caste, and the Vaishyas are the merchant caste. The next lowest castes are the Sudras (Blacks) who form the fourth caste. The lowest of them all, however, are a people known as the “Untouchables” or “Dalits” who refused to surrender to the Aryan cultural domination and ludicrous caste structure, and consequently are not even part of the system. India’s 1951 constitution officially names them, “Scheduled Castes.” The name “Dalit” has only come into prominence within the last four decades, and it means “crushed and broken.”
The Untouchables or Dalits are the long suffering descendants of Aryan-Sudra unions and native Black populations. During the time of Aryan invasions they retreated into the Hinterlands of India and today number 160 million, and are considered outcastes.
Various pictures of Sheedis in Pakistan. Photographs courtesy of Runoko Rashidi.
Young Sheedi men in Pakistan. The Sheedis of Pakistan have direct African roots. Photo courtesy of Runoko Rashidi.
A Sheedi leader in Pakistan. Photograph courtesy of Runoko Rashidi.
A group of Sheedi Black men in Pakistan. Photograph courtesy of Runoko Rashidi.
A group of Black women in Sri Lanka. Photograph courtesy of Runoko Rashidi.
The Manu-Smriti, the code of the Hindu law-giver that is based on sanctified racism, is even upheld today by the upper castes as the essence of the “ideal democratic republic.” Manu (c.a.100 A.C.E.) codified the laws of caste, introduced various sacrificial rites, and founded the social laws that today constitute the basis of the caste system. The Indian Penal Code and the Criminal Procedure Code have sections to sentence anybody protesting Manu’s Code. For many years the whole of Hindu society have been a victim of the code but especially the Black untouchables or Dalits and women including Brahmin.
This idiotic and barbaric regime of caste law was the foundation for what was to become one of India’s most popular religions known as “Hinduism,” which is now practiced throughout the country. The Hindu religion justifies the notion of “Untouchability,” and believes that the Untouchables are the result of the accumulation of sins in previous lives. The outrageous Hindu text describes the Untouchables in the most degrading way (foul and loathsome), and consider any physical contact with them as polluting. Even the gods of Hindus belong to a particular caste. In addition, the Brahmins turned Buddha into a Hindu god for political control over the people. They also introduced and aggressively implemented the inhumane Devadasi system, which was based on the forced prostitution of countless Dalit women and girls.
Hinduism is not the scientific name for the religion the real name is Brahmanism or Vedic Dharma. Hinduism is nothing but a confused by-product of both the earlier pure Black Buddhist philosophy and the later White invaders copied, distorted and politically led form of Buddhism known as Brahmanism. Regarding the Brahmins scholar V.T. Rajshekar wrote:
“The leader of this Brahminical revivalist movement was Sankara, c 800A.D. He infiltrated Buddhism and sabotaged it from both within and without. Sanskrit was revived. Sankara helped divide Buddhism into two schools and made them fight each other. Although the principle of Ahimsa (non-violence) was incorporated into Hinduism, numerous Buddhist scholars were murdered and vast quantities of Buddhist literature destroyed. Brahmins virtually took over the country...”
The barbaric White tribes or Brahmins became the custodians of what once was the native Black religion, and the Brahmin priesthood was formed. These once most gluttonous, meat eating and liquor-drinking savages then became vegetarian non-drinkers.
Statue of a Buddha (Enlightened One) in Bodhgaya, India. Photo by Runoko Rashidi.
A lingam, India. Symbol used for fertility worship.
Although, after the bloody battles with the native Blacks they eventually became the custodians of the Vedas, (the four “sacred scriptures” of India including the Rig Veda) these once clueless nomadic savages were not its original creators; however, they did later adapt those areas that were most easily discernable to suit their political ends. For example, one scholar noted: “Brahmins in the altered literature represented the heads of Buddhist monasteries as monsters and the charioteer, whom the priests envied were represented as lowborn carters and wagoneers.”
In the Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire by Drusilla Dunjee Houston, the early Aryans or Brahmins are described as follows:
“Whatever was their inception, their race was very quarrelsome. They brought no women with them to India but took Dravidian wives. They established themselves in the midlands and here amidst Aryas mixed with Cushite [Black] blood... In the Vedas we find but a very rudimentary knowledge of astronomy. Their enlightenment on medicine is very obscure and mixed with sorcery. History and geography...were left solely to the imagination. Vedic society was patriarchal or masculine, the Cushite life matriarchal.
In the Vedas were tales of endless blood-feuds, capital punishment, roasting alive, drowning, trampling by elephants, devouring of dogs, tearing in pieces, impalement and other horrors that sound more like the Assyrian cruelties of a later age or Hunnish atrocities...”
Houston provides an all too clear picture of what life must have been like for the early Sudras under Aryan or Brahmin rule:
“...By torture they forced Brahminism upon the Indian Cushites [Blacks]. They punished theft by the cutting off of hands and feet. One who defamed the Brahmins or the caste spirit they sought to force upon the people had his tongue torn out, red hot irons thrust into his mouth, or the lips cut off...Under their law the husband could whip or kill his wife and confiscate her property...The burning of the widow on the funeral pyre persisted down to modern times. Time has treated the Brahmin roughly. He had a better start than any other Hindu, he appropriated learning ready-made, but he made but little of the great chance. He has been too proud and self centered. The Brahmin has the proud conviction of superiority depicted in every muscle of his face. His is not the nature that could have created the wonderful literature of India...Though he is in possession of the richest literature and the deepest philosophy of the ages, he adds nothing to the solution of India’s bitter problems today.”
Houston makes a very good point because since at least the 9th century A.C.E. there has been no other examples of works that equal the magnificent jaw-dropping splendour of the Indian caves of Elephanta or Ellora. Quite on the contrary, what are left are the mere decayed and corrupted ruins of a distant forgotten past. This stands to reason because the philosophy and culture was never originally Brahmin or Aryan and therefore these achievements could not be sustained, further developed or repeated.
The earliest known high civilisation of India is the Indus Valley civilisation which, according to historians, was supposedly at its height between 3000 B.C.E to 2500 B.C.E. It is now located in Pakistan, however, this region was once considered a part of northwest India. This epoch is known as Harappan named after one of the earliest known Indus Valley cities called Harappa. Another large Indus city was identified in 1922, 350 miles northeast of Harappa called Mohenjo-Daro (The Mound of the Dead). These great cities (Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa) were the culmination of towns and villages which date from 6000 B.C.E. to 7000 B.C.E. Since the discovery of these cities several others have emerged Chanhu-Daro (the third largest city), Kalibangan, Quetta and Lothal.
It has been estimated that Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa was once populated by about 40,000 people apiece. One of the most outstanding features of these city ruins is the sophisticated town planning, which was built in a grid-like fashion with large main streets. They have been described as “masterpieces of urban planning.” These towns existed thousands of years before the Romans would construct cities in a similar fashion, and it would take another millennium before this municipal planning would be seen on earth again.
These cities also had sophisticated drainage systems, bathrooms with flushing toilets and multiple level houses, each unit consisted of a square courtyard surrounded by large rooms. Both Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are believed to have been the chief administrative centers of the Indus Valley complex.
The Indus River to the Harappan civilisation was of similar importance as the Nile River was to Egypt and Nubia. At the time of the Harappan civilisations height (3rd millennium B.C.E.), the climate was very different from today. The Indus region was well forested and had fertile river basins which provided fuel for brick-firing, and food was plentiful.
In Baluchistan and Lower Sind, to the north and west of present day Karachi you had the earliest known Indian settlements (6th millennium B.C.E.). At that time the area was well-watered and capable of supporting many villages, today, however, it is a riverless desert. The name Hindu derived from the name Sindu which was what the early Indians called the Indus River. They referred to the region around the river as Sind. The Persians, however, had difficulty pronouncing the letter “s” and so called it “Hindu.” The name Hindu eventually reached Greece and overtime the land became to be known as Hindustan and the inhabitants Hindustanis or Hindus.
Located at the head of the Gulf of Cambay was the busy commercial port Lothal which measured about 230 by 40 yards, and had extensive connections into inland central India.
It had a shipping dock that measured 700 feet in length and was made of brick. The dock was controlled by a sluice gate that enabled the loading of ships during high or low tides. The people of the Indus cultivated wheat, corn, barley, peas and sesame, and there is clear evidence that cotton was cultivated. Cotton was vigorously traded by the people of the Indus with Mesopotamia and although they also traded gold, copper, turquoise, lapis lazuli and timber from the Himalayas, it was the cotton that was their chief commodity. In addition, according to scholars, Harappan cities are believed to have consisted of a federation of self-governing bodies. Interestingly, Houston highlights a particular African trait that the early ruling Indians maintained:
“In ancient times India was ruled by Rajas, who were assisted by a council of elders. Sometimes the Raja was influenced by a queen mother or dowager. In Cushite [African] races lineage was traced through the mother. The succession of the Raja was traced in the same way. This was changed upon the ascendency of the Brahmins. Turanians [Ayrans] trace lineage from the father’s side.”
The name Raja derived from the name Rajbansis (Rajput). The rajas of Bihar claim a divine decent and it was the title of the Black native conquering class. These Blacks or Kshatriyas (warrior caste) would later form an alliance with the Aryan (Brahmin) conquerors, and along with sections of other aboriginal races be manufactured into Brahmins.
The close relationship that the original inhabitants, the native Black Indian, had with the African continent and its inhabitants cannot be denied. The Nile River was considered as being sacred by some early Indians. In addition, the Mountain of the Moon (in Uganda-Congo) and Mount Meru (in Tanzania) were also considered as sacred sites by some Indians.
Western India was regarded as a part of the Ethiopian Empire by the Ethiopian Kebra Negast. Even more interestingly, there are at least twenty five tribes in East Africa who worship “Murungu” as a supreme god, similarly, the Indian Dravidians have a god called “Murugan,” and both are said to reside in sacred mountains. Murugan is the god of mountains, the son of the mother goddess, and is a prominent deity of Dravidian India. In addition, the Takshak and Naga nations of India who are often referenced in Sanskrit traditions are words purely African.
The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus who wrote during the time of Augustus (first century B.C.E.) continues the same African/Indian theme when he writes about one of the most popular and ancient Egyptian deities Osiris:
“From Ethiopia he (Osiris) passed through Arabia, bordering upon the Red Sea as far as to India, and the remotest inhabited coasts; he built likewise many cities in India, one of which he called Nysa, willing to have remembrance of that (Nysa) in Egypt where he was brought up...
At this Nysa in India he planted Ivy, which continues to grow here, but nowhere else in India or near it. He left likewise many other marks of his being in those parts, by which the latter inhabitants are induced, and do affirm, that this god was born in India. He likewise addicted himself to the hunting of elephants, and took care to have statues of himself in every place, as lasting monuments of his expedition.”
Another typical African trait or tradition that the early Indians held was the importance of community. The Indian communities like most traditional African ones were operated as minor republics; working together every need was met from within, and almost completely independent of any foreign relations. There was little crime so the people could dwell with their doors open, and no individual had the right of bequest of land, social and domestic matters was resolved by the village council. This helped the communities survive through successive Indian dynasties and revolutions. The Mogul, Sikh and English may have once been India’s masters but when they crumbled to oblivion it was these little village communities that remained still standing.
It was this collective spirit and good sense of community, which seems impossible for us today, that not only built such things as reservoirs, roads, motes and housing, but also the wonderful temples, palaces and giant engineering works that today astonish the beholder. Houston speaks of early India’s achievements in relation to other great cities, and highlights this great and typically African sense of community:
“The basis of the wonderful achievements of Babylonia, Egypt and Ethiopia was this communal system. It is for the results they gained that we should weigh this system, seemingly impossible to us, for its value. It was by their combined strength that they gained and held world sovereignty for so many thousands of years."
From at least the third century C.E. three major Dravidian kingdoms existed in South India: the kingdoms of Pandya, Chera and Chola. Pandya was the southernmost Dravidian kingdom. The major city of Pandya was Madurai, the location of the famous chapel of the Tamil Sangam (Academy). The Sangam, of which there were three, was initiated by a body of forty-eight exceptionally learned scholars who established standards and ruled over all literary productions. The Pandyan rulers received these intellectuals with lavish honors. It is also important to note that in the kingdom of the Pandyas women seem to have enjoyed a high status. This is the exact opposite of the regions of India where the Whites ruled. In these lands of Aryan domination it is said that a woman was never independent. “When she is a child she belongs to her father. As an adult when she marries she belongs to her husband. If she outlives her husband she belongs to her sons.” An early queen of the Pandyas, on the other hand, for example, is credited with controlling an army of 500 elephants, 4,000 cavalry and 13,000 infantry.
The end of the Indus civilisation was brought about by the aforementioned horse riding nomadic white barbarians. During the 3rd millennium B.C.E. these aggressors began to raid villages in Baluchistan, as revealed by the excavated site of Rana Ghundai. Later around 1800 B.C.E. barbarians came again from the western steppes to assault the poor people of Baluchistan once more, who sadly became the first people to succumb to these marauding savages. After conquering the outlying villages news of these ferocious invaders spread throughout the Indus region. The ancient laws and rigid organisation of the Indus cities suffered greatly. The Harappans who lived in small villages and towns uprooted to seek refuge in the major cities, which along with the news brought about great strain. At Monhenjo-Daro large rooms were divided into smaller ones, meanwhile mansions became tenements. Evidence reveals that potter’s kilns were built within the city boundaries and were even in the middle of a street.
In anticipation of the arrival of these blood thirsty savages the city’s defences were strengthened, and of the four gateways, one was completely blocked.
However, these defences proved too weak against the invaders superior weapons and steeds, and eventually the barbarians finally engulfed the land. They slaughtered hundreds of people, men, women and even children, none were spared. These attacks were referenced in the white invader’s Rig Veda as their war-god Indra destroying hundred of Das’s (Blacks) fortified places called Pur.
Evidence of the atrocities committed by the invaders have been excavated by archaeologists who discovered two skeletons lying on a short flight of brick steps and two more just outside the steps. One archaeologist recorded: “There seems no doubt that these four people were murdered...It can be regarded as almost certain that these skeletal remains date from the latter end of the occupation of Mohenjo-Daro and are not later intrusions.” He also described another group of nine skeletons, five of them children lying in strangely contorted positions and crowded together “as though”, he says, “thrown pell-mell into a hurriedly made pit...” He goes on to say: “it appears that this group tried to escape with their belongings at the time of the raid but were stopped and slaughtered by the raiders.”
There have been many more skeletons unearthed by archaeologists in the Indus Valley cities that reveal deaths in a similar violent fashion. The many that survived migrated to the northeast to be greeted by kindred villagers. In time these villages once again began to flourish. However, this also initiated a series of wars which raged through the northeast of India, which would last for one thousand years, finally culminating in the famous great battle of Kuruksetra on the Kuru River in the 5th century B.C.E., commonly known as the Mahabharata.
The famous epic, Mahabharata of the 5th century B.C.E. marks a significant period of history when the Greeks, Persians, Bactrians, and other nations and peoples gathered for a devastating battle to see who would reign supreme between the Black kings known as Pandavas and the Kuravas - the White (Ayran) kings. This was the battle in which the renowned ultimate Kshatriya (warrior) Krsna (Krishna), whose name means black, would show his true metal. He was accompanied by five other central figures called Pandavas, including another great Kshatriya Arjuna.
Arjuna facing the impending bloody battle cried out: “Place my chariot O changeless one between the two armies, so that in this moment of impending battle I may behold those standing eager for war, with whom I have to fight.” Thus addressed, Krishna drove the incomparable chariot between the two armies drawn up for battle, “facing Bhisma, Drona and all the rulers of the earth.” “Then Arjuna gazed upon the two peoples: fathers, grandfathers, teachers, uncles, brothers, sons and grandsons...and he was overcome with horror...”
He was afraid to fight, for he did not want to lose those who were of his own people. But being a Kshatriya he was bound by code “to avenge the injuries that he and his brother had sustained...and to assist his brethren in their just effort to recover their dominion.”
Not knowing what he should do, unable to distinguish right from wrong, Arjuna in despair turns to Krishna. The divine warrior conveys to him the dual principles of right and wrong and puts Arjuna’s mind to rest.
Krishna then stands upright and in a great voice says to Arjuna “Time am I, the Destroyer great and mighty, appearing here to sweep all men away. Even without thee none of these warriors here, in their ranks arrayed shall remain alive. Therefore, do thou arise, win glory, smite your foe, enjoy in prosperity thy lordship... “Thou dost feel pity,” speaks the mighty warrior, “where pity has no place. Wise men feel no pity either for what dies or for what lives. There never was a time when I and thou were not in existence, and all these princes too... Be assured (Arjuna) that the very tissue of this universe is imperishable; it lies in no man’s power to destroy it - Fight then, O Bharata.”
Then what is said to be one of the greatest battles witnessed on earth began.
Iconographic representation of the great Mahabharata epic. Front cover image of the book African Presence in Early Asia, 2009.
The relief on the previous page is an accurate iconographic representation of the great Mahabharata epic, which is a paramount sculpture of the Gupta period. Asleep on the coils of the serpent, Ananta is Vishnu in the form of Krsna (Krishna). The four-faced god of creation Brahma is shown rising from the centre of this relief in a lotus blossom throne over Krishna’s extended right arm. Indra the war god is to the right of Brahma, and mounted upon his elephant. Shiva and his spouse, seated on a bull is shown to Brahma’s left, with the goddess of wealth and consort of Vishnu, Lakshmi at Shiva’s outstretched feet. The five Kshatriya (warriors) known as Pandavas are at the base of the relief. They were princes of their respective territories, who set out to do battle with the Kuravas, the White or Aryan kings for the control of the Indian subcontinent. Standing in the centre unsheathing his sword is the eldest of the Pandavas. Bhima stands to his left with a club in his hand who fought single handed against the leader of the Aryan or White kings and smashed his side. Krishna’s close friend, Arjuna who is said to be the most beautiful and valorous of the Pandava princes is shown next to Bhima. The common wife of the Pandavas, Draupadi is in the far right corner. To her right are twin half-brothers Nakula and Sahadeva.
This superb relief is but one of four at a major temple at Deogarh in Central India, and based on the iconographic style is dated to about 425 C.E.
The famous Gupta Dynasty reached its zenith under Gupta emperors between 320 C.E. to 467 C.E., although its cultural influence continued well into the eighth century C.E. The founder of the dynasty was Chandra Gupta I, who confidently claimed to be a descendent of the great Mauryas of the 4th century B.C.E. The dynasty of the Mauryas came to be considered by many as India’s greatest known Black empires. The founder of the Maurya dynasty was also known as Chandra Gupta and was thus the distant predecessor of Chandra Gupta I (the founder of the Gupta dynasty). It was in the now and then densely Black populated area of northeast India called Bihar that both the Gupta and Maurya empires arose. The people of Bihar known as Nandas of whom the great Chandra Gupta’s sprang were non-Ayran and thus native Blacks of India. In addition, the Taksak and Naga nations who figure so largely in Sanskrit traditions are words purely African.
Ashoka was the grandson of Chandra Gupta Maurya (the founder of the Maurya dynasty). Ashoka was the Maurya empire’s third ruler, who was a great king and mighty warrior.
He underwent an abrupt but thorough metamorphosis, and chose a path of peace and tranquility. Likewise, Chandra Gupta II, the grandson of Chandra Gupta I (founder of the Gupta dynasty), also became a mighty Kshatriya, or warrior and was known as the “son of prowess.”
Chandra Gupta II was famous for driving out the barbarous European invaders known as Scythians. After expanding the empire to the south, during his reign, he later became an apostle of peace. It was in his reign that literature, science and sculpture developed to such a high degree that India became one of the most advanced countries of its time. This epoch known as the Gupta period would, however, be the final time that Blacks would enjoy eminence in northern India. After the Gupta era Blacks no longer figured prominently in northern Indian history.
The image on the following page is of a seal discovered in the Indus Valley city known as Mohenjo-daro, and it dates approximately 3000-2500 B.C.E. This image not only reveals the great antiquity of this civilisation but also of its deep spiritual practices. It also shows that the practise of Jainism and Yoga far predates both Vardhanana Mahavira who was a contemporary of Buddha (fifth century B.C.E.) and is said to have founded Jainism, and of the Indian grammarian (philologist) Patanjali who is credited with writing the first yoga sutras in the 2nd century B.C.E.
The unearthed seals were described by one historian A.L. Basham as images of: “nude men with coiled hair; their posture, rigidly upright, with the legs slightly apart, and the arms held parallel to the sides of the body but not touching it, closely resembles the stance called by the Jaina’s Kayotsarga in which meditating teachers are often portrayed in later times.”
Yogi, Mohenjo Daro Indus seal, 3000-2500 B.C.E. Transcription reads: “The Black One, The Black Buffalo.”
Harappans were a deeply spiritual people that incorporated religion in their everyday life, and Jainism runs through the very core of India’s various religions and spiritual beliefs. Furthermore, these seals clearly reveal that Jainism and Yoga were both intertwined and were indigenous to the Indus Valley many millennia before the religions of Buddhism and Hinduism came into existence. In fact, according to Jaina tradition Jainism extends back to a very remote time, and the discovery of late stone-age cities in the Indus Valley dating to at least the third and perhaps even the fourth millennium B.C.E. corroborates this claim.
Although Mahavira is credited by contemporary historians with being the founder of Jainism, according to tradition Mahavira was the last of its twenty-four Tirthankaras or saints. In fact, the earliest Tirthankara according to Jaina tradition lived at a time so remote we cannot even calculate the geological date. A period in the dawn of time, “when men were as giants.” Running through the list of some of these Tirthankaras we have Mahavira’s immediate predecessor and 23rd Tirthankara known as Parsvanatha or Lord Parsava who was born in 872 B.C.E. He achieved enlightenment in approximately 772 B.C.E. and lived during the great wars waged between the Black descendents of the Harappan culture and the Aryan or White invaders.
As for the racial identity of Parsava himself, historian Heinrich Zimmer quotes a passage from the man’s life:
“when the son [Parsava] was born, the thrones of all the Indras tembled, and the gods understood that the Lord had seen the light of day. With pomp they descended for the celebration of the Second Kalyana, ‘the salutary event of the Saviour’s birth.’...The child was of a beautiful blue-black complexion, grew rapidly in beauty and young strength.”
Chandler remarked that Zimmer further added in his footnotes that Parsava “was a scion...of the non-Aryan, aboriginal stock of India.” “From this statement,” Chandler, quite rightly concluded: “we see that Parsava, like Mahavira and the Buddha [Gautama] was a saint of pre-Aryan philosophical belief.”
As previously mentioned Parsava was only the 23rd Tirthankara making him the second from last of the lineage.
Mohenjo Daro girl. National Museum, New Delhi, Pakistan.
Images above: (1) Mohenjo Daro girl. National Museum, New Delhi, Pakistan. (2) Statue of a Buddah, 1st century A.C.E. India. (3) A lingam, India. Symbol used for fertility worship. (4) Women of Orissa. Northeast India.
Although we cannot substantiate how far back the lineage extends with historical fact, according to Jaina tradition Parsava’s predecessor Aristanemi lived 80,000 years before him. Taking us back to the lower Paleolithic period (approx. 2.6 million to 10,000 B.C.E.).
Aristanemi’s predecessor Nami is said to have lived fifty thousand years before him during the Eolithic period (Stone Age, preceding the Lower Paleolithic). The twentieth Tirthankara, Survata is said to have lived eleven hundred thousand years before Nami. These great expanses of time goes on and on taking us way back to the earliest Tirthankara who is said to have lived even before the three and a half million year old Ethiopian known as Lucy. Although, as previously mentioned these dates cannot be substantiated, it is clear that we are looking at a philosophy of extreme remote antiquity that existed at a time of India’s very first inhabitants, who we have already established were Black.
As for Yoga also known as the “Supreme Science,” along with its counterpart Sankhya, Dr Zimmer states: “These ideas do not belong to the original stock of the Vedic Brahmanic tradition [Aryan thought]. The two ideologies are of different origin...Yoga being related to the mechanical system of the Jainas, which we have seen can be traced back in a partly historical, partly legendary way through the long series of the Tirthankaras, to a remote aboriginal non-vedic [Harappan] Indian antiquity. Yoga therefore must be immensely old.” Chandler adds, “In his assertion as to the age of Yoga, I believe Zimmer to be absolutely correct.
There is no doubt that this spiritual science was borne out of Black ancestry. Evidence of its impact on Harappan culture is visible in the soapstone seals found at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. The images on several excavated seals clearly depict an individual sitting in what is traditionally classified as Padmasan or “Lotus” posture [asana] and a similar posture known to practitioners as Bhadrasana or the adepts pose...”
Some of the seals reveal a deep kinship with the animal kingdom and oneness with nature. One seal in particular is of a Yogi (one who practices Yoga) surrounded by various animals. Indeed, many of the postures or asanas are named after animals, i.e., crane, cobra, crocodile, lion, frog, fish, etc. This respect for all living things demonstrates the profound traditional Indian feeling of oneness with nature that has inspired Indian thought throughout the ages. As Dr Zimmer puts it: “...the most significant ethical outcome of the attitude was the commandment not to injure any living thing...” It therefore follows that this “non-violence” ethic would be applied to their diet in the form of vegetarianism. With regards to this Basham states: “When Fa-Hsien visited India in the early 5th century he reported that no respectable person ate meat.
The growth of vegetarianism was of course linked with the doctrine of nonviolence...It was known in the days of the Upanishads and was elaborated by Buddhism and Jainism...”
The aforementioned seal is known as “Lord of the Wilderness” and is described by Dr Zimmer as follows: “the curious headdress resembles to a striking degree one of the most common symbols of early Buddhist art.
The posture is associated also and even more characteristically with the Buddha...The cross-legged posture of the meditating yogi.”
In a retrospective assessment of the little mentioned but tremendous contributions made by the African race in India, Chandler wonderfully concluded:
“We are now at a point where the civil, spiritual and cultural patterns begin to enlighten one as to the tremendous contribution made by the African race to India and the world at large. From Harappa to Parsava to Krishna then Buddha; from Jainism to Yoga to Sankhya and Gita, the investment the Black race has made in Indian culture and civilisation affects one with a profound and sobering clarity.”
Women of Orissa. Northeast India. African Presence in Early Asia, 2009, p.115.
Kubera, Indian god of wealth. Date unknown. LACMA. Photo by Runoko Rashidi.
Runoko Rashidi, Ivan Van Sertima, African Presence in Early Asia, Transaction Publishers, USA, Seventh printing 2009.
Gerald Massey, A Book of the Beginnings Vol.1, Cosimo Classics, New York, 2007.
Drusilla Dunjee Houston, Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire, Classic Books International, New York, 2010.
John G. Jackson, Christianity Before Christ, American Atheist Press, 2002.
Runoko Rashidi’s website: www.cwo.com (2011).
Spencer Wells, The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey, Random House Trade; Reprint edition (Feb 2004).
Quote from Diodorus Siculus: “From Ethiopia he (Osiris) passed through Arabia, bordering upon the Red Sea as far as to India, and the remotest inhabited coasts; he built likewise many cities in India, one of which he called Nysa, willing to have remembrance of that (Nysa) in Egypt where he was brought up...”
Houston, pp. 168-171. - “Brahmanism claims to be founded upon the Vedas, the sacred books of India, taken over by the Brahmins. They were not the creators of the writings, though today they are the custodians, interpreters and priests...”
African Presence in Early Asia, Edited by Runoko Rashidi, Co-Edited by Ivan Van Sertima, Revised Edition. This is from the 1988 edition, and was removed, for some reason, from subsequent publications.
Runoko Rashidi, who appeared on Hidden Colors, lectures on The African Presence In Asia on his visit to London, England (UK). TITANS TV, Kalam EL.
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