Header: Queen Tiye, 18th Dynasty, Egypt. (ca. 1391 BCE.) Egyptian Museum. Berlin, Germany.
Top row: (1) Sesostris (Sensusret I). (2) Mentuhotep I. (3) Sarcophagus. (4) Amarna queen.
Bottom row: (1) Mentuhotep II, 11th Dynasty. (2) Queen Nefertari. (3) Nymare Amenemhat III, 12th Dynasty. (4) Sahure, 5th Dynasty.
“General history informs us that when the curtains of history was lifted, the civilization of Egypt was hoary with age. It was a culture that must have developed from thousands of years of growth. Why is the scholarship of the world so silent as to what lay behind historic Egypt? No nation throughout the ages has “as Athene sprung full fledged into knowledge of all the arts and sciences.” The story of what lay behind Egypt fascinated the whole ancient world.
The culture of Egypt did not originate upon the Lower Nile, who then was her teacher. It was the ancient Cushite Empire of Ethiopians, which weighty authorities tell us ruled over three continents for thousands of years. Should the world wait longer to test the truth of these ancient witnesses? Beside these gigantic achievements, the petty conquests of Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, and of Napoleon Bonaparte, fade into insignificance.
There seems to be fear to tell about these ancients, who built mighty cities, the ruins of which extend in uninterrupted succession around the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Traces of this hoary empire, works appearing to have been wrought by giants, hearing marks of Cushite genius, have been found by scientists all over the primitive world.”
Drusilla Dunjee Houston, Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire
Much has been written about this wonderful and enigmatic civilisation, and for good reason ancient Egypt seems to be in the centre of everything. How do we account for the intriguing Egypto-Masonic symbolism of a pyramid and eye on the back of the 21st century’s most powerful nation’s currency, the American dollar bill, for example? Or the glass pyramid at the Louvre Museum, Paris? Or one of ancient Egypt’s most important symbolic monuments, the obelisk or tekhen, scattered throughout the globe in the capital cities of leading countries - America’s Washington D.C.; London, England; Paris, France; Rome, Italy - smack bang in the middle of the famous Vatican’s St. Peter’s Square, no less? And why would the founder of the religious organisation Jehovah’s Witnesses, Charles Taze Russell, have a seven foot tall Egyptian pyramid as a memorial placed on his burial site? Did he know something that his very own members did not know, and do not know today?
To further capture the imagination we have mystery and intrigue in the form of the Freemasons, Rosicrucian and other secret societies, which pattern themselves on the ancient Egyptian Mystery Schools, and whose members belong to the world’s aristocratic elite. Many famous and infamous personalities throughout the ages are said to have studied the mysterious ancient Egyptian knowledge, such as Pythagoras, Plato, Johann Kepler, Napoleon Bonaparte, Roger Bacon, Copernicus, Sir Isaac Newton and Galileo, to name just a few. Indeed, Egypt is so extraordinary that it has the exceptional honour of being the only country that is the subject of scientific study in the form of Egyptology. There is no Romanology or Greekology, one has to ask why that is?
For those who are privy to even a rudimentary background on ancient Egypt this fact is no surprise. Most notable scholars acknowledge the ancient Egyptian civilisation to be one of the oldest, dating back at least more than 4,000 years B.C.E. and some even suggest more than 10,000 B.C.E. More to the point, however, the ancient Egyptians are responsible for providing the world with reading and writing, mathematics, religion, philosophy, art and science. They produced staggering superhuman-like architecture such as the pyramids and temples that both mesmerizes and baffles the modern beholder, and quite simply cannot be reproduced even today. The last serious and documented attempt to reproduce the pyramids was by the Japanese in 1978 and failed miserably, never to be dared again. Needless to say that this “flies in the face” of all the conventional wisdom regarding mankinds evolution and supposed “progress” that we've all been deliberately spoon-fed all our lives. Evidence of similar superhuman-like structures can be found dotted around the globe, such as the enormous megalithic stone that weighs over 1100 tons in Baalbek, Lebanon known as the “Stone of the Pregnant Woman,” but it is in Egypt that these structures are most concentrated and exemplified.
It’s little wonder then that this captivating and awe-inspiring civilisation has garnered so much attention and emotion over the many years. It is equally not surprising that some groups and races would want to claim its heritage as their own. So just who were the Egyptians? In order to answer this question a breakdown of fundamentals need to be made.
Egypt or Kemet (its true and original name) is located in the northern part of the continent of Africa, and it is one of Africa’s Nile Valley civilisations along with its more southern parent known in ancient times by the Greeks as Nubia (located partly in southern Egypt and partly northern Sudan). It should be said from the outset that Egypt, like Nubia, was originally inhabited by a purely Black African population similar in look as any other African found in the interior of the continent today. These Africans were responsible for building the pyramids and temples, the writing, spirituality, high science and culture that Egypt is presently famed for. Indeed, we now know through scientific studies of DNA that all of modern humanity trace their ancestral roots back to Africa and that Africans are the world’s original people. However, it should also be made absolutely clear that Black Africans were not only the world's first human inhabitants, but were also responsible for creating, nurturing and sustaining the world's most highly developed, enduring and arguably technically superior civilisations as well.
Contrary to popular belief, due to deliberate propaganda, the ancient Egyptian race issue was actually emphatically resolved over four decades ago. In 1974, between January 28th to February 3rd, a conference was held at the Cairo Symposium to discuss, among other things, the race of the ancient Egyptians. It was organised by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), and was attended by two brilliant African scholars Cheikh Anta Diop and Theophilé Obenga who both successfully held the position that the ancient Egyptians were Black Africans.
The debate was also attended by 20 of the world’s top Egyptologists, most of whom held the position that the ancient Egyptians were either Caucasoid (White) or western Asiatic. However, due to the large body of evidence presented by the two African scholars with little or no opposition from their academic opponents, by the end of the conference most participants had to change their views.
The official concluding UNESCO report stated:
“Although the preparatory working paper sent out by UNESCO gave particulars of what was desired, not all participants had prepared communications comparable with the painstakingly researched contributions of Professors Cheikh Anta Diop and Obenga. There was consequently a real lack of balance in the discussions."
In other words, the “lack of balance” can only be interpreted as being a lack of apposing evidence, since you cannot provide apposing evidence that does not exist, and Diop and Obenga conclusively put their academic colleagues firmly in their place.
The result, when analysed, is hardly surprising given the amount of objective evidence presented, such as sculptures, tomb reliefs, mummy remains, melanin dosage tests, paintings, geography, anthropology, historical accounts, and cultural and linguistic relationships that collectively clearly pointed to a Black African origin. This, nevertheless, has not deterred some Eurocentric historians from unsuccessfully trying to undermine or overlook the significance of the victory.
Although quietly ignored by Eurocentric Egyptologists, one of the most substantial and incontrovertible evidence of the ethnicity of the ancient Egyptians came from the ancient Egyptians themselves, in what is known as the “Table of Nations.” Discovered in the tomb of Rameses III (KV11), and dated ca.1200 B.C.E., it’s a scene that depicts various races, and portrays the Egyptians and Nubians as identically the same in feature, complexion and attire but distinctly different from the Indo-Europeans and Semites. A 19th century German Egyptologist by the name of Richard Lepsius produced a faithful reproduction of this scene that was later published in 1913 by Kurt Sethe, and even more later used by the Egyptologist Cheikh Anta Diop. Due to its candid clarity with regards to the race of the Egyptians, the reintroduction of the reproduction by Diop led to heated debates from mainstream Egyptologists. In truth, however, there really isn't anything to debate, it's simply a case of “what you see is what you get,” like it or not.
This reproduction is a condensed version of the original tomb scene, reducing the 4 images for each of the four groups to one representative for each of the four groups. In other words, the 16 images were reduced to 4 images. Likewise, the text was also condensed by taking it from its original horizontal position in front of each of the 4 images per group to a single vertical column in front of 1 group representative. “Nevertheless, this condensed…reproduction version of the "Table of Nations" is ACCURATE in both the representation of the images and the positioning of the texts:”
The 19th century German Egyptologist, Richard Lepsius' faithful reproduction of the scene discovered in the tomb of Ramses III.
In 1994 and 1995 the scholar Professor Manu Ampim, that currently teaches at Contra Costa College, San Pablo, California, and has taught in the Department of History at Morgan State University, visited and photographed the “Table of Nations” scene in its entirety. Due to the length of the scene it was difficult to photograph the scene in a single shot and thus needed to be photographed in sections. The length of the scene has proven to be a convenient problem for some dishonest historians because it has allowed them to mix-up the images and deliberately take the entire scene out of context. On this desperate underhandedness Ampim remarked:
“They carefully present only two images at a time (instead of ALL FOUR images of each group) in order to never reveal the horizontal texts which runs across the scene and identifies each group. I have taken a number of photographs, (following page, figs. 2-3) from the actual Tomb of Ramses III itself and the two photographs…represent the OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE that the Sethe/Lepsius reproduction is *accurate* and that the Egyptians indeed depicted themselves as jet black in skin color and dressed identical to the other black Africans to the south. The photos show the beginning (far left) of the scene. They show the four images of the Egyptians as they saw themselves, and their name _Rmt _ (i.e. "the Kmtjw" or "the Egyptians") is also clearly written. Here is a unique inside view of the tomb, and this photographic evidence is IRREFUTABLE.”
Figure.2 Photographic evidence from the tomb of Rameses III (KV11). Manu Ampim photo of 4 Egyptians ("Rmt") in tomb KV 11, 1994.
Figure.3 Photographic evidence from the tomb of Rameses III (KV11). Manu Ampim photo of 3 Egyptians ("Rmt") in tomb KV 11, 1994.
This irrefutable evidence, however, has not deterred some Eurocentric scholars from providing absurd, desperate and dishonest claims. Ampim provides a list of their arguments:
A) The scene doesn't actually exist!
B) Sethe/Lepsius made an error in showing the black skinned Nubian group twice, instead of showing the "brown" skinned Egyptian group in the first position (far left of scene)... [Note: These Eurocentric writers often cause deliberate confusion by mixing in the Seti I tomb scenes and making wild claims that the two tomb scenes are "exactly" alike.]
C) Sethe/Lepsius made an error in positioning the text "Rmt" (i.e. "the Egyptians") next to the Nubian images, or
D) The 1913 edition published by Sethe, et al. is an inaccurate version, based on Lepsius' original research conducted in the 1840s.
According to Prof. Manu Ampim: “These photos from the tomb itself clearly show that 4 of the black skinned people in the Ramses III "Table of Nations" scene are in fact the Egyptians as they saw themselves. The ancient artists made their identity known by placing the text in front of each image as they clearly called themselves, "Rmt" ("the Egyptians"). Any claims to the contrary would be absurd.”
On these bogus claims Ampim emphatically stated:
“Each of these claims are shown to be completely false by the original tomb photographs (figs. 2-3). The tomb photos show that the opponents of Sethe/Lepsius and Diop have made their erroneous argument by NEVER showing ALL FOUR of the Egyptians or ALL FOUR images of the Nubians, so that the entire name (presently horizontally across the scene) of the groups cannot be seen by the public. These writers and Egyptologists use the cut-&-paste photo distortion technique to make sure that the images and texts cannot be seen in their entire context. In their deceptive presentation these writers only show 2 images of a group instead of all 4 images, because this would show too much of the text and would reveal the identity of both the black skinned Egyptians and the black skinned Nubians. This is the reason that Eurocentric scholars and writers will never present the *original photographs* of all four representatives of the groups.”
For more information on this topic visit: www.manuampim.com
More recent work by Egyptologist Robert Bauval and astrophysicist Thomas Brophy present the anthropological, climatological, archaeological, geological, and genetic research supporting the black African origin of Egyptian civilization. Their book Black Genesis: The Prehistoric Origins of Ancient Egypt presents concrete proof that an advanced black African civilization inhabited the Sahara long before Pharaonic Egypt, and reveals black Africa to be at the genesis of ancient civilization and human history.
Much of the Egyptian population that we see today is the result of invasions and occupations, the last being the Arabs around 642 A.C.E. which explains the current Islamic religious dominance in the country. These invaders and occupiers would often adopt the native Black African culture, mainly the Greek invaders around 332 B.C.E. and then the Romans around 30 B.C.E, which explains why some of the images and sculptures are of Caucasoids or Whites. However, there is now no-doubt, taking into consideration the large body of evidence and the historic Cairo Symposium by UNESCO in 1974 that Black people with often BUT NOT ALWAYS full lips, broad noses and woolly hair were at the dawn of Egyptian civilisation. And gave birth to and developed all of the fundamental and authentic ancient Egyptian elements presently known.
One of the most eminent Egyptologists, E.A. Wallis Budge makes the Egyptian’s origins unmistakably clear with the following statement:
“The prehistoric native of Egypt, both in the old and new stones ages, was an African, and there is every reason for saying that the earliest settlers came from the south....There are many things in the manners and customs and religions of the historic Egyptians that suggests that the original home of their prehistoric ancestors was in a country in the neighbourhood of Uganda and Punt.”
It should also be noted, at this early stage, that these invaders, starting with the Hyksos “rulers of foreign lands” (ca. 1783-1550 B.C.E.) who were Asians from the region of Palestine, added nothing to the cultural development of ancient Egypt. However, the numerous invasions that the region suffered did leave its mark by greatly contributing to its widespread and near wholesale destruction.
The many images available of Black ancient Egyptians are conspicuous by their absence in educational materials, movies, and documentaries. They certainly exist in abundance, in a way that even the staunchest academic advocate of a “White” Egypt would not dare deny. So why do we rarely, if ever, see a single ancient Egyptian depicted or identified as a Black African in any of the aforementioned media or education outlets? Yet the images above clearly demonstrate that they exist. Why do we never see these images, or similar images of clearly discernable Black Egyptians, in the mainstream media? Have you ever been taught that there was AT THE VERY LEAST ONE Black Egyptian king or queen outside of the 25th Dynasty? If not why not? In a supposed “White”egypt does it not make noteworthy information? Unless, of course, we are to believe that the images above, as well as the numerous other similar portraits, are of White Egyptians.
Due to the deliberate and systematic falsification of world history over the many years and today this information is not being taught, and is consequently hard for some to believe. What there has been since the later portion of the 18th century, and as a result of the transatlantic slave trade, is an attempt to promote White supremacy by ensuring that the White race are put forward and in front of any ancient Black civilisation that demonstrates high development.
To this end the Greco-Roman invasions and occupations has proven to be extremely convenient for many Eurocentric scholars over the years because they have then used the sculptures and images of the later Greco-Roman rulership to promote Egypt in history books, movies, museums, educational institutions and the mass media, and consequently push the authentic Black Egyptians to the back. In addition, these communication outlets, such as docu-dramas or movies, are also used to simply falsify racial type by having European or Asian actors playing the part of authentic African Egyptians, which is like the European-American movie star Tom Hanks playing the role of the African-American Malcolm X.
Some Eurocentric scholars have also intentionally damaged or vandalised the sculptures and images by, for example, breaking off the noses and lips, and lightening the images on tomb walls to create a lighter reddish tone as opposed to leaving them dark brown or black, or simply re-carving noses to make them appear thinner and more European in feature. These entire factors amount to nothing less than psychopathic racism, and this statement is no exaggeration, as the following remarks should demonstrate:
“There are a people, now forgotten, who discovered, while others were yet barbarians, the elements of the arts and sciences. A race of men, now ejected from society for their sable skin and frizzled hair, founded on the study of the laws of nature, those civil and religious systems which still govern the universe.”
“How we are astonished...when we reflect that to the race of Negroes, at present our slaves, and the objects of our contempt, we owe our arts, sciences...”
The above quotes describing the ancient people of Egypt was taken from Count Constantine de Volney’s French best-seller The Ruins of Empires. The book described his journeys in Egypt between 1783 and 1785. In this work he also described the appearance of the Sphinx as “typically Negro in all its features."
As was often the case, when the Americans and British republished it in English in 1790 these quotes, and others which described the Egyptians as a Black African race, were deliberately omitted, which angered Count Constantine de Volney greatly. So great was his annoyance at this overt racist attack, in fact, that he forbade the future sale of the book until it was published in its entirety.
Another aspect of deliberate falsification is demonising, this is clear to see in movies such as Indiana Jones, The Mummy, Tomb Raider and Stargate, etc. These movies tend to paint the ancients as mysterious, wicked and evil. However, a little SERIOUS study of Ancient Egypt would tell you that this demonization is far from justified. It would not take long for the most novice student to realise this after studying the African Goddess of Truth, Justice, Righteousness, Balance & Harmony - Maat, or the kind and thoughtful ancient wisdom teachings of the African Priest Ptah Hotep.
Ptah Hotep was a Mayor and Vizier during Old Kingdom Egypt who served under the Pharoah Assa around 2,500 B.C.E. In the early 1800’s, on the west bank in the “Valley of the Kings” a precious papyrus was discovered in an eleventh dynasty tomb of one of the Intef Pharaohs. This papyrus contained two writings, the first was incomplete. The second and longest (14 pages) part of the papyrus, sometimes called the Book of Ptah Hotep and sometimes called the Prisse Papyrus, contained a complete work of Ptah Hotep. This work is commonly referred to as the 37 Teachings or Instructions of Ptah Hotep and is considered to be the oldest complete textbook in the world. These instructions were wisdom teachings that provided some of the earliest precepts of morality and ethics. Ptah Hotep himself was said to be the eldest legitimate son of an unnamed Pharoah, and was 110 years old when he wrote it. The following are a couple of passages from the book:
1) “Be not arrogant because of your knowledge; take counsel with the ignorant as well as with the wise. For the limits of knowledge in any field have never been set, and no one has ever reached them.
Wisdom is rarer than emeralds, and yet it is found among the women who gather at the grindstones.
2) If you are a leader and command many, strive for excellence in all you do so that no fault can be found in your character. For Maat - the way of Truth, Justice and Righteousness - is great; its value is lasting and it has remained unequalled and unchanged since the time of its Creator. It lies as a plain path before even the ignorant and those who violate its laws are punished.
Although wickedness may gain wealth, wrong-doing has never brought its wares to a safe port. In the end, it is Maat, the way of Truth, Justice and Righteousness - that endures and enables the upright to say “It is the legacy of my father and mother.”
Another important misconception that requires clarification is what constitutes as a phenotypical Black African. Black African features are not homogenous, and some pure unmixed Black Africans do not have thick lips and broad noses, many of their lips are thin and noses can be extremely narrow. The following page has portraits of Maasai people of East Africa that live in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania along the Great Rift Valley. These pure unmixed Africans all posses thin lips and narrow noses, if they were sculptured portraits, some scholars would stake their career on them being depictions of White Mediterranean or European types.
Above are two pictures of Maasai people of East Africa. These pure unmixed Africans both possess thin lips and narrow noses, if they were sculptured portraits, some scholars would stake their career on them being depictions of White Mediterranean or European types.
The name “Egypt” is Greek in origin before this name the Africans referred to their country as “Kemet” and it was written KMT. The KM was represented hieroglyphically as a charred piece of wood and it meant black. The M was represented pictorially as an owl and the T was represented pictorially as a loaf. The hieroglyph of a circle with a cross is a determinative which meant village, city or nation. Therefore, KMT or Kemet literally meant “the land of the blacks” or simply “black land”, “black city” or “black nation.” The people of Kemet referred to themselves as Kemmiu which literally translates as “the blacks.” However, scholars often use the term Kemites or Kemetic when referring to the people.
The word “hieroglyphic” is also Greek in origin before the use of this word the Africans referred to their language as “Medu Netcher” - Medu meaning “word” and Netcher meaning “god”. Thus, Medu Netcher meant “the word of god” or simply “Holy writing.” Due to the fact that Hieroglyphic language or Medu Netcher was written without vowels, the spelling and pronunciation of certain Kemetic words can vary considerably amongst scholars. For example, some scholars use the word “Kamite” (spelt with an “a”) to refer to the Egyptians whilst others spell it “Kemite” (spelt with an “e”) or simply with no vowels at all - Kmts. Some scholars use vowels when spelling “Medu Netcher,” whilst some omit the vowels altogether and thus it is spelt “Mdw Ntr”.
To aid in communication this site will include vowels where necessary, and use the names Egypt and Kemet, Egyptian and Kemite, and Hieroglyphic and Medu Netcher interchangeably.
Ancient Kemet (Egypt) was an extremely high civilisation that had a long history of thousands years, much of its history is now shrouded in mystery and no-one knows for sure when the civilisation begun but the source of ancient Egyptian chronology that Egyptologists use today is by the African scholar and priest Mer-en-Jehuti - more widely known as Manetho of Sebennytos (ca. 275 B.C.E.) who lived during the Greek occupation in the Ptolemaic era after Alexander of Macedonia (Alexander the Great) - 356-323 B.C.E.
Commissioned by the Greek occupying ruler Ptolemy Philadelphus (Ptolemy II, c.a. 285 B.C.E) to write the definitive history of Egypt, Manethos produced a book called Aegyptica (The History of Egypt) that provided a list of successive Egyptian monarchs spanning to almost 25,000 years B.C.E. and would later be, in part, what today’s Egyptologists would use to form our present dynastic structure.
Strangely, however, most Egyptologists are only prepared to accept a part of the chronology starting from around 3100 B.C.E. and repudiate the more distant dates. Concerning this curious issue author and scholar Graham Hancock in his book Fingerprints of the Gods, provides these powerful arguments:
“…Egyptologists are prepared to use Manetho only as a source for the historical (dynastic) period and repudiate the strange insights he provides into prehistory when he speaks of the remote golden age of the First Time.
•Why should we be so selective in our reliance on Manetho?
•What is the logic of accepting thirty ‘historical’ dynasties from him and rejecting all that he has to say about earlier epochs?
•Moreover, since we know that his chronology for the historical period has been vindicated by archaeology, isn’t it a bit premature for us to assume that his pre-dynastic chronology is wrong because excavations have not yet turned up evidence confirming it?...”
He then went on to say:
“…there is one aspect of Manetho’s original message that comes through loud and clear. Irrespective of everything we have been taught about the orderly progress of history, what he seems to be telling us is that civilized beings (either gods or men) were present in Egypt for an immensely long period before the advent of the First Dynasty around 3100 BC.”
Egyptologist John Anthony West in his documentary Magical Egypt adds even more weight to the argument when he said:
“Unacknowledged and highly controversial is still older kingdom Egypt stretching back tens of thousands of years. This notion is dismissed, often ridiculed by scholars of today. However, the ancient Egyptians themselves in several chronological tablets and papyri detail the existence of these earlier periods of their own history. They talk of long periods when Egypt was ruled by the neteru, the gods or principles, and then another long period when Egypt was ruled by the Shemsu-Hor the companions or followers of Horus. The ancient tablets give the names of the kings and when this is computed out it comes to something like 36,000 years BC. This is, of course, an anathema to contemporary scholars who ascribed these writings to fantasy or romance of the ancient primitive mind. This assumes that contemporary scholars know more about Egyptian history than the Egyptians themselves.”
In addition, one area that is commonly known to puzzle Egyptologists is that ancient Egypt appears to have started fully developed with no antecedents, which, if believed, is simply absurd. However, based on the so-called historic dynastic period starting from around 3100 years B.C.E. scholars roughly divide the civilisation into 30 dynastic periods.
The following timeline, taken from Anthony T. Browder’s phenomenal book Nile Valley Contributions to Civilisation: Exploding the Myths Vol.1 (2009, pp.63-5), has been divided into four kingdoms of stable rulership and three intermediate periods that either suffered internal disorder or periods of foreign invasion and occupation:
Pre-Dynastic Kemet (4236-3150 B.C.E)
4236 - Kemetic people using 1,460 year old astronomical calendar
3800 - Emergence of earliest Nubian civilization
3400 - Nubian Kingdom of Ta-Seti.
Dynasties 1-2 (3150-2649 B.C.E.) - Old Kingdom
3150 - King Narmer (Menes) unifies Upper and Lower Kemet and establishes Memphis as the state capital.
Dynasties 3-6 (2649-2150 B.C.E.) - Old Kingdom: Pyramid Age
2630 - Zoser builds Step Pyramid and Saqqara complex.
2575 - 2465 All the great pyramids at Dahshur and Giza built
2465 - Great sun temples and mortuary complexes built.
2323 - Pyramid Texts inscribed in tomb of King Unas.
First Intermediate Period (2150 - 2040 B.C.E.)
Kemet experiences widespread political upheaval
Dynasties 11-12 (2040 - 1763 B.C.E.) - Middle Kingdom: Literary Age
2040 - Mentuhotep II unifies Kemet and relocates the capital to Waset (Thebes/Luxor)
Art. Literature and religion all flourish during this era as prosperity and stability are restored to the land.
1897 - Senwosret establishes a colony in Greece and founded the city of Athens.
Construction of the great Kemetic Labyrinth by Amenemhet.
Dynasties 13-17 Second Intermediate Period (1783-1550 B.C.E.)
First Asian invasion of Kemet by Hyksos “rulers of foreign lands.” Invasion begins period of widespread destruction.
Dynasties 18-20 (1550-1170 B.C.E) New Kingdom: Temple and Imperial Age
1550 - King Ahmose defeats the Hyksos and reunifies Kemet.
1504 - Thutmose I expands the imperial rulership from the Upper Nile to the Upper Euphrates (Persia/Iraq).
1473 - Hatshepsut rules Kemet as first female pharaoh.
1391 - Amenhotep III rules Kemet at the height of its military power. Queen Tiye rules by his side.
1353 - Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) introduces concept of the Aton as the sole god to be worshipped in Kemet. Queen Nefertiti rules by his side.
1333 - Tutankhamen ascends the throne of Kemet.
1306 - Seti I, the father of Rameses II builds magnificent tombs in the Valley of the Kings.
1290 - Rameses II (Rameses the Great) rules Kemet for 67 years.
Nefertari the Nubian queen reigns as Rameses II chief wife.
During this period, Kemet experiences enormous prosperity and a phenomenal resurgence in temple construction, literature and art.
Dynasties 21-24: The Third Intermediate Period (1070-750 B.C.E.)
Deterioration of political authority and a general period of social, political and religious decline.
Dynasty 25 (750-675 B.C.E.) Late Kingdom
750 - Piye (Piankhi), Nubia king conquers Upper and Lower Kemet and re-establishes central authority in Kush.
712 - Shabaka reunifies all of Kemet and rules from Waset (Thebes/Luxor).
690 - Taharqa leads military invasion of Spain and Palestine.
667 - Assyrians conquer Lower Kemet.
664 - Assyrians conquer Upper Kemet.
Nubian kings re-establish central government in Upper Kemet until they are conquered by Assyrian forces.
Dynasty 27 (525-404 B.C.E.) First Persian Invasion
525 - Kemet invaded by Cambyses and becomes a part of the Persian Empire; capital is moved to Babylon.
Dynasty 28 (404-399 B.C.E.)
404 - 399 - Persians are expelled from Kemet; capital is moved to Sais in the Western Delta.
Dynasty 30 (380-343 B.C.E.)
Last period of rulership by native - born Kemetic kings.
Second Persian Invasion (343-332 B.C.E.)
Greek Period (332-30 B.C.E.)
332 - Alexander of Macedonia (Alexander the Great) defeats the Persian army and conquers Kemet.
323 - Ptolemy I establishes the Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt.
285 - Ptolemy II commissions Manetho to write History of Egypt, hereby establishing the only surviving record of Dynastic rulership.
69-30 - Cleopatra VII born and rules Egypt until her death.
Roman Period (30 B.C.E. - 323 A.C.E.)
30 - Augustus Caesar claims Egypt as a province of Rome.
B.C.E. - Degenerate elements of the ancient Kemetic religion are popularised in Rome.
Byzantine Period (323-642 A.C.E.)
323 - Constantine becomes first Christian Emperor of Rome and convenes the first Nicaean council in Nicaea, Turkey, in 325 and declares Christianity the official state religion in 333.
391 - Christian Emperor Theodosius bans the ancient religious systems of Egypt and orders the closing of all Egyptian temples.
394 - Last recorded date of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions.
527 - Christian Emperor Justinian finally succeeds in closing the last Egyptian temple at Philae.
Islamic Period (651 A.C.E. - 1981)
642 - Conquest of Egypt by Arabs and the introduction of Islam.
1250 - The Mamelukes (former Turkish and Circassian slaves) conquer Egypt.
1517 - Egypt conquered by the Turks of the Ottoman Empire.
1798 - Egypt conquered by Napoleon of France.
1881 - British and Ottoman troops seize control of Egypt.
1952 - Egyptian Officers force King Faruk to give up the throne.
1953 - General Muhammad Naguib becomes the first Nubian to rule Egypt since 343 B.C.E.
1954 - Muhammad Naguib overthrown by general Gamal Abdel Nasser who forms the United Arab Republic in 1958.
1970 - Anwar el-Sadat becomes president after death of Nasser.
1981 - Hosni Mubarak becomes president after assassination of Sadat.
No serious account of Egypt can be made without the inclusion of its parent nation located to the south of the country and known in ancient times by the Greeks as Nubia, partly located in southern Egypt and partly northern Sudan. The name Nubia comes from the Egyptian word nub meaning gold, therefore Nubia was called the “land of gold” and the Nubians “people from the land of gold.” Nubia was also referred euphemistically as the “Land of the Bow”, this term derived from the earliest hieroglyphic description for Nubia, and it referenced the skilled archery of the ancient Nubian people.
The Nubian people like the Egyptians were a once purely Black African people and Nubia’s close relationship with Egypt cannot be over emphasized. Browder explains this relationship:
“Nubia was much more than a source for the vital mineral resources which were required for architectural, artistic and personal use in Kemet. Nubia was the lifeline of ancient Kemet, and the source of its language, philosophy and religion. For more than three thousand years of Pharaonic rule, Nubia played a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of its daughter nation Kemet, particularly during the New Kingdom (ca. 1550-1196 B.C.E.). During this time, Nubia was ruled by the Kemetic king Amenhotep I and his new providence was administered by an official who was referred to as the “King’s Son of Kush.”
It is in Nubia where the ancient Nubian Kingdom of Ta-Seti is located, and it is in Ta-Seti where discoveries of immense historical importance were found. Over 5000 artifacts were discovered by professors Keith Seele and Bruce Williams in Qustal the capital of Ta-Seti which revealed evidence of a pre-dynastic pharaonic civilization. The artifacts were discovered in 1964 but were not made public until 1979 after Keith Seeles death in 1977. The Nubian artefacts dated approximately 200 years before the start of the so-called first dynasty of Egypt around 3100 B.C.E. The most telling artifact discovered was an incense burner which had engravings that showed scenes depicting, among other things:
1) The falcon God Horus, which verifies the Nubian origins of the Egyptian Royal Holy Trinity. The Royal Holy Trinity being Osiris, Isis and their son Horus.
2) A representation of a king or pharaoh wearing the traditional beard and crown of Upper Egypt while sailing in a boat toward the Royal Palace.
Due to the artifacts discovered it is thought by archeologists that the Nubian civilization first developed around 3800 B.C.E. and lasted until 652 A.C.E. However, more recent discoveries reveal a much earlier start period. Egyptologist Robert Bauval and astrophysicist Thomas Brophy in their book Black Genesis: The Prehistoric Origins of Ancient Egypt provide concrete proof that an advanced Black African civilization inhabited the Sahara long before Pharaonic Egypt, and reveals Black Africa to be at the genesis of ancient civilization and human history.
Nevertheless, based on the standard chronology scholars have divided the periods/regions of Nubian civilization into various groups, the earliest is classified as A-Group between 3800 to 3100 B.C.E; the succeeding culture is classified as C-Group between 2300 to 1500 B.C.E. Both of these groups are said to have been located in Lower Nubia which is in southern Egypt. The third group that the Old Kingdom Egyptians referred to as the ‘Kingdom of Kush’, was called the Kerma Culture situated to the south of Lower Nubia above the Third Cataract. The Kerma Culture was said to have flourished between 2000 to 1550 B.C.E.
Even further south in the third century B.C.E. the main Nubian civilization was the Merotic civilization in the city of Meroe which existed between 200 B.C.E. to 300 A.C.E. The Merotic civilization had temples at Naga, Musawwarat es Sufra and, of course, Meroe. The civilization also had many royal pyramid tombs.
The Merotic writing system was very close to the Egyptian Medu Netcher (hieroglyphics), and in 1963 a 2,000 year old sandstone tablet was discovered which may still hold the key to deciphering the writing. The final great Nubian culture, classified by scholars as X-Group was the Ballana located in Lower Nubia and believed to have flourished from around 250 A.C.E to 550 A.C.E.
With Nubia’s abundant amount of carvings, skeletal remains, architectural remains and even well preserved bodies, it is incontestable evidence of the development from the south of ancient Africa’s earliest classical civilization and its extremely close relationship to Egypt.
Regarding this huge wealth of evidence Browder remarked:
“As a result of the re-examination of data concerning ancient Nubia, many scholars have concluded that the Nubians were an extremely sophisticated people who built cities, roads and temples comparable to those of the people of Kemet in the north. It has even been suggested by one researcher that there were more pyramids constructed in Nubia than in Kemet.”
Unfortunately, due to the construction of the Aswan High Dam between 1960 and 1968 followed by Lake Nasser which covers approximately 1,550 square miles, further archaeological study of Nubia is impossible because many of the main sites are now buried under 250 feet of water. These constructions resulted in the displacement of 40 Nubian villages further inland. Many Nubians were resettled in and around the city of Aswan and a large number drowned when they refused to leave their ancestral homeland.
As for the Nubian temples and tombs? “A total of 18 ancient temples were dismantled and relocated. Of the 18 temples that were moved, 12 are still in Egypt, and the remaining four can be found in museums in Madrid, Spain; Rome, Italy; Leiden, Holland and New York City in the United States. These temples were presented as gifts to those nations that assisted in the construction of the Aswan High dam. There is no way to estimate the total number of temples and tombs which now lie at the bottom of Lake Nasser, nor is there any way of knowing the many secrets that these structures currently hold. One thing is certain, because of the creation of the Aswan Dam, the world will never have an opportunity to study the full impact Africans from the southern Nile Valley had on the development of ancient Kemet (Egypt) and subsequent civilisations.”
Historians will often use the fact that the Egyptians and Nubians on occasion had their political differences, and the Nubians are sometimes portrayed by the Egyptians as prisoners of war. However, whilst this is correct, the Egyptians did not see any racial differences between themselves and the Nubians. As previously highlighted, in the tomb of Rameses III (1200 B.C.E.) there are carvings on the wall that clearly show the Egyptians as being identical with the Nubians in racial type and dress but distinctly different from the Indo-Europeans and Semites. Because these carvings were clandestinely put on a tomb wall and the Kemites obviously knew who they were, it is hard to believe that this was not intended to be a clear and simple message regarding their racial origins for future generations to discover and comprehend.
By this time Egypt had experienced a succession of invasions from foreigners and was on constant guard, could it be that Rameses III and other pharaohs knew the complete collapse of Egypt would eventually come from these foreign invaders? Why else would the Egyptians feel the need to make it clear to future generations their racial type?
During Dynasty 20, Usermare-Meryamen Rameses III leads Kmt’s defence against three desparate invasions of Libyan tribesmen and nomadic Sea Peoples.
Before that the thirteenth son and successor to Rameses II - Baenre Merneptah also had to repel a major foray into Kmt by an aggressive confederation of Sea Peoples. Dynasty 15 to 16 (c.a.1650-1550) consisted of foreign rulership by the Hyskos who occupied Kmt for more than a century.
In Dynasty 17 the Hyskos remained the dominant force in Northern Kmt until they were eventually overthrown by the native Africans under the leadership of Ahmose I and his queen Ahmose-Nefertari. This reconquest ushered in what was to be recognised as Kmt’s Third Golden Age commonly known as the New Kingdom and comprised Dynasties 18 to 20 (c.a. 1750 B.C.E. to 1080 B.C.E.).
Kmt’s internal instability, foreign invasions and occupation must have surely given Rameses III and other native Africans a cause for concern and an ominous feeling. The following extract is taken from Maulana Karenga's fabulous book Selections from the Husia: Sacred Wisdom of Ancient, and from the original papyrus The Book of Ipuwer:
“Lo, what the ancestors foretold has come to pass. The land is full of bands of evil-doers and the plowman goes to plow with his shield. Faces are pale; the bowmen stand ready; wrongdoing is everywhere and there is no man or women of yesterday. Lo, the women are barren and none conceive, for God does not make children anymore because of the state of the land. There is blood everywhere and no shortage of the dead. Indeed the burial cloth cries out before one approaches it.
Lo, the land turns like a potter’s wheel. The robber has become rich and the honorable person a thief. The foreigners from without have come to Egypt and the Egyptian of yesterday cannot be found anywhere. Lo, the great and small say “I wish I were dead” and little children say “He should not have caused me to live.”
Lo, the unrestrained says: “If I knew where God is, I would serve Him.”
Behold now, how greatly the people have changed.
One who once did not sleep even on a box now owns a bed. Those who once owned robes now are in rags and those who once did not weave for themselves now own fine linen. Behold, those who once did not build boats, now own ships and the former owners just look at them, for they are no longer theirs. Those who once lacked shelter now have homes and those who had homes are in the blast of the storm. And those who knew nothing of God now make offerings to Him with the incense of others…”
During Dynasty 18 Kmt established itself as a world military power to guarantee national security. Important relations were made and maintained with Minoan Crete, Cyprus and Myceanean Greece, and a large part of southwest Asia was subjugated by the Egyptians and reduced to vassalages.
At some point during these invasions, occupations and internal disputes, many Africans left their homeland Egypt and migrated southward to the interior of Africa, consequently many Africans in the interior of the continent today can trace their ancestral roots back to Egypt. Historian Prof. James Small relays this connection:
“...The Farn people of Benin, Ewe people of Toga, Ga people of Accra Ghana (Yoruba) all travelled together to West Africa from Ancient Egypt [according] to their oral tradition. The Yoruba language is actually 50% Mdw Netcher (Hieroglyphics)…As I’ve interviewed and spoken with the priest and priestesses in those places they all trace their oral tradition back to Egypt.”
In his book Civilisation or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology, p. 359-361, Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop provides powerful and irrefutable evidence of the linguistic and cultural connection between Ancient Egypt and some of today’s West Africans. The list on the following page from the book shows a small sample connecting today’s West African Wolof with Ancient Egyptian Mdw Netcher (Hieroglyphics):
1) Egypt: Ta = earth - Wolof: Ta = inundated earth, the very image of Egypt, of the Nile Valley.
2) Egypt: Kematef = mysterious initial snake that encircles the earth and eats its own tail (?) - Wolof: Kemtef, Kematef = the limit of something; could apply to the mythical snake encircling the world and feeding each day off its own tail.
3) Egypt: Di Ra = Ra made. - Wolof: Dira - dara = something; the being, and also the non-being, depending on the case.
4) Egypt: Tefnut = the divinity that Ra created by spitting him out. - Wolof: Tef-nit = to spit out a human being; to have a human being come out of one’s spittle, by spitting him out, hence Teflit = saliva.
5) Egypt: Di ef = he does. - Wolof: Di-ef (na) = one will do or Def = action
6) Egypt: Ntr = protecting god. - Wolof: Twr = protecting god, totem.
7) Egypt: Twr = libation. - Wolof: Twr = libation.
8) Egypt: Geb = the earth, the divinity. - Wolof: Gab = to dig the ground or Goub = stalk or Gob = harvest, harvesting stalks of wheat or millet.
9) Egypt: Khepera = sopi (Coptic) = to transform. - Wolof: Sopi = to transform, to become.
10) Egypt: Nun = the muddy and black primordial water. - Wolof: Nwl = black or Ndoh um nwl = the water of “Black,” of the black (river), of the Nile (?)
11) Egypt: Nen or nwn = the inert primordial water. - Wolof: Nen = nothingness, non-being or Nenn = inert.
12) Egypt: Sa = the god who nourishes the intelligence of truth; god of knowledge. - Wolof: Sa = to teach, to instruct.
13) Egypt: Set = Isis = woman. - Wolof: Set = spouse (wife).
14) Egypt: Seh, sih = noble. - Wolof: Seh = dignitary.
15) Egypt: Atef, atew = Osiris’s headdress when judging at the tribunal of the dead. - Wolof: Ate = to judge, judgement.
16) Egypt: Tem = to stop doing something; non-being, complete stop. - Wolof: Tem = to stop doing something; absolute immobility; complete stop.
There are many cultural traits that have passed down from Ancient Egypt to today’s West Africans, however, one very interesting phenomenon that many African cultures apply is the locking of the hair. Prof. James Small explains:
“All priests in all African cultures lock their hair. To become a man in the east African Maasai you must lock your hair. This is a reference to the ancestors who did not have a comb or brush to groom their hair. They (Maasai) use red clay to make it cling. To become a priest in Ghana, if you are trained in…Kumasi you take three years in the training process and you lock your hair; when the three years are up you may cut your hair. In Botswana in South Africa to be a priest you lock your hair. The same thing in Nigeria and Benin you may choose to cut the locks after the three years. The locking of the hair is a sacred phenomenon that referenced the most ancient ancestors at a time when they allowed the hair to grow naturally.”
Small maybe correct in his assessment that the locking of the hair is simply a reference to the ancestors who allowed their hair to grow naturally, however, it may also be a reference to the Ancient Egyptian God Horus. As a youth Horus was represented in images with a lock of hair but as an adult the lock was removed, this has parallels with today’s African concept of being allowed to cut your hair after the three year training period. Here is an extract from John G. Jackson’s book Christianity Before Christ, 2002, p.g.115:
“The first Horus was the child, who always remained a child. In Egypt the boy or girl wore the Horus-lock of childhood until twelve years of age. Thus childhood ended about the twelve year. But although adultship was then entered upon…the full adultship was not attained until thirty years of age…as with the man so it is with the god, and the second Horus, the same god in his second character, is the Khemt or Khem-Horus, the typical adult of thirty years. The god up to twelve years was Horus the son of Isis, the mother’s child. The virile Horus, the adult of thirty years, was representative of Fatherhood, and this Horus is the anointed son of Osiris…”
Taking the above extract into consideration, it could be that today’s African trainees are actually being the representation of Horus the son of Isis with a lock of hair, and after successful training (now an adult and then having the option to cut their hair) becoming the representation of Horus the anointed son of Osiris.
Isis breast feeding “Horus the Younger” who has a single lock of hair. He was represented as a youth with a lock of hair on the right side of the head. This was called the Horus-lock and symbolised youth. This Horus wore the double crown of the two Egypts (Upper and Lower Egypt).
Isis and Horus are the original "Virgin Mother & Child". Very much later Christianity plagiarised this concept with the European "Mary and Jesus".
Images above: (1) Amenemhat I, 12th dynasty. (2) One of the wives of King Mentuhotep II, Dynasty 11. (3) Amenhotep III, 18th Dynasty. (4) King Huni, 3rd Dynasty.
“The excavation of Petrie revealed in Egypt the remains of a distinct race that preceeded the historic Egyptians. The earliest civilization was higher than that of the later dynasties. Its pure art represents an “Old Race” that fills all the background of the pre-historic ages. It colonized the first civilization centers of the primitive world. The ancients called this pioneer ram which lit the torch of art and science, Cushite (Kushite) Ethiopians, the founders of primeval cities and civilized life.” - Drusilla Dunjee Houston, Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire.
The classical home of the ancient Ethiopians was eastern Sudan, and it should be made clear that the Ethiopians of ancient times were not the later mixed race mulatto types of today but looked more like today’s inner African. Ancient historians such as Homer and Herodotus referred to all Black Africans as “Ethiopians”. Moreover, Homer and Herodotus mentioned that there were Ethiopians not only in Sudan but also dwelling in Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, Western Asia and India. In the late 1800’s European explorers drew a map that labelled the entire African continent Ethiopia.
Historian and author John G. Jackson tells us about the origin of the word Ethiopia in his work Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilsation:
“When the Greeks came in contact with the dusky inhabitants of Africa and Asia, they called them the “burnt-faces.” The Greek word for burnt was ethios and the word for face was ops. So ethios plus ops became Ethiopian.”
Classical Ethiopia (eastern Sudan) is often referred to as Kush, and the ancient Kushite civilisation or empire may be called the archaic civilisation because even before there was an Egypt there was the great Kushite Empire, which covered much of Africa and extended as far as Asia.
It should be noted, however, that Kush or Cush is merely a biblical character that now denotes areas once inhabited by Black people. Cush (Kush) was, according to the Bible, the eldest son of Ham, brother of Mizraim (Egypt), Canaan and the father of the Biblical characters Nimrod, and Raamah, mentioned in the Table of Nations in the Genesis 10:6 and I Chronicles 1:8.
He is traditionally considered the eponymous ancestor of the people of Cush, a dark-skinned people inhabiting the country surrounded by the River Gihon, identified in antiquity with the Nile River and Aethiopia (i.e. all Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly the Upper Nile). In short, Kush can be seen as a reference to the region south of Egypt (Sudan).
Many of the cultural features of Egypt had existed in Kush long before Egypt’s existence, such as the art of carving and building in stone of statues, monuments, pyramids, temples and palaces; Mummification and the worship of heavenly bodies such as the stars, planets, the moon and the sun; Metal working with iron and steel; the practice of mother-right and the institution of divine kingship; the institutions of totemism and exogamy; Irrigational agricultural practices; the worship of the Great Mother Goddess. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus provides evidence of Egypt’s southern/Ethiopian origins in the following revealing passage:
“Now the Ethiopians, as historians relate, were the first of all men, and the proofs of this statement, they say, are manifest. For that they did not come into their land as immigrants from abroad, but were the natives of it, and so justly bear the name of autochthones (sprung from the soil itself), is, they maintain, conceded by practically all men...They say also that the Egyptians are colonists sent out by the Ethiopians...
Osiris having been the leader of the colony. For, speaking generally, what is now Egypt, they maintain, was not land but sea, when in the beginning the universe was being formed. Afterwards, however, as the Nile during the time of its inundation carried down the mud from Ethiopia, land was gradually built up from the deposit...and the larger part of the customs of the Egyptians are, they hold, Ethiopian, the colonists still preserving their ancient manners.”
Author Lady Lugard also supports the idea of the Egyptian’s southern origins:
“When the history of Negroland comes to be written in detail, it may be found that the kingdoms lying towards the eastern end of the Sudan were the home of races that inspired, rather than races who received, the tradition of civilisation associated for us with the name of ancient Egypt. For they cover on either side of the Upper Nile between the latitudes of ten degrees and seventeen degrees, territories in which are found monuments more ancient than the oldest Egyptian monuments. If this should prove to be the case and the civilised world be forced to recognise in a black people the fount of its original enlightenment, it may happen that we shall have to revise entirely our view of the black races, and regard those who now exist as the decadent representatives of an almost forgotten era, rather than as the embryonic possibility of an era yet to come.”
As further evidence of Egypt’s southern African origins - as if it were needed, the Ancient Egyptians referred to the land of Punt, a region located geographically in modern day Somalia, as “God’s land.”
Historian Runoko Rushidi explains this further:
“…Punt was a major producer of ebony, frankincense and myrrh and throughout Kmt's dynastic period no region was held in greater esteem than the land of Punt.”
An important source of documentation for providing an early history of the Hapi (Nile) Valley is the Edfu Text, which was found in the Temple of Horus at Edfu. The Edfu Text gives an account of the origin of Egyptian civilisation. According to the text civilisation was brought from the south by a band of invaders under the leadership of King Horus. Moreover, the Egyptians referred to the land “up south” as Ta Ntr, or the land of God.
During a mission to inner Africa the Egyptian official Harkhuf gave news to the boy-king Neferkae Pep II that he was bringing back a Twa (a so-called pygmy) for the king’s pleasure. The Twa were looked upon extremely highly by the Egyptians and were known as the “Dancers of God”.
The letter that Pep II sends back to Harkkuf clearly shows the boy-king’s excitement at the news:
“Come north to the residence at once! Hurry and bring with you this pygmy whom you brought from the land of the horizon-dwellers live, hale, and healthy, for the dances of the god, to gladden the heart, to delight the heart of king Neferkare who lives forever! When he goes down with you into the ship, get worthy men to be around him on deck, lest he fall into the water! When he lies down at night, get worthy (20) men to lie around him in his tent. Inspect ten times at night! My majesty desires to see this pygmy more than the gifts of the mine-land and of Punt! When you arrive at the residence and this pygmy is with you live, hale, and healthy, my majesty will do great things for you, more than was done for the god's seal-bearer Bawerded in the time of King Isesi, in accordance with my majesty's wish to see this pygmy.”
The Egyptians were so fond of these diminutive Africans that one of the Egyptian deities was a Twa - God Bes. God Bes is said to have come from the Great Lakes region of Africa, and he was also popular with the Phoenicians and the ancient Cypriots. Bes was known as the protector of households and mothers and children. He was also known as the defender of good and enemy of the bad.
Picture of the popular Kemetic God Bes who was a Twa. Bes was known as the protector of households and mothers and children. He was also known as the defender of good and enemy of the bad.
The man credited with being the first dynastic king is Narmer, Aha or Menes to the ancient Greeks. In the latter portion of the fourth millennium B.C.E. Narmer completed the monumental task of unifying Upper Egypt in the south (from the vicinity of the first cataract to the near apex of the Egyptian Delta) and Lower Egypt in the north (essentially the Delta). The first capital of Egypt was named in honor of Menes and was called Memphis, which the ancient Egyptians called Ineb-Hedj the “White Wall” or Ankh-tawy “That which binds the Two Lands” during Middle Kingdom Egypt. Unfortunately, this period is lacking in detail, however, it should be noted that Narmer came from the south - towards inner Africa, as was always the case during ancient Egypt’s times of crisis renewal always came from the south.
After 300 years of internal turmoil and political instability it was the south that once again - for the final time - rescued Egypt from the brink of uncertainty and ushered in the 25th Dynasty and what is known as the Fourth Golden Age: The Renaissance Period.
In 750 B.C.E. Egypt had fallen on to hard-times, and Libyan warlords had gained control over the land and robbing it dry. Help arrived in the form of the African Kushite King Kashta. Under his leadership he organized forces to drive the Libyans out, he got as far as Waset (Luxor) where he made a pilgrimage to the Amen Temple and was hailed ‘King of Upper and Lower Egypt’. His daughter Amenirdas I, was installed in Waset with the title of ‘Divine Wife of the God Amen.’ However, Kashta only got as far as Waset (Luxor) before he eventually died.
In 730 B.C.E. his son Piye (Piankhi) continued his father’s battle and went all the way down north and conquered all of Egypt (Upper and Lower) but elected to govern from Kush (Upper Nubia between the third and sixth cataracts).
However, in 715 B.C.E. the Libyan aggressors returned, and it was Piankhi’s brother Shabaka that went back to the north with an army and totally wiped the foreign aggressors out. Shabaka, unlike his predecessor, chose to govern from Waset (Luxor), and extended the Kushite empire from the Mediterranean Sea to the whole region of the Hapi (Nile) Valley southward toward inner Africa.
It was during Shabaka’s reign that the ancient creation story known as the Memphite Theology was reproduced on a massive granite slab (‘Shabaka Stone’), and it was during the reign of his successor Shabataka that the demotic script was introduced. However, this was obviously a period of constant turmoil and foreign aggressive threat for control of resources such as gold, land and minerals, and to that extent, was not unlike the situation in current day Middle East. The 25th Dynasty native Africans had to continually fight off these foreign aggressors from the north.
In 690 B.C.E. Taharqa was crowned Egypt's new pharaoh and was to become the most outstanding and longest ruling king of the 25th Dynasty. He commanded military campaigns in Western Asia to save the Jews from massacre at the hands of Assyrian aggressors. He was also said to have led an expedition to Spain and Palestine when he was a prince. However, in 664 B.C.E. after 26 years of rule, he was finally defeated by the Assyrians and retreated back to Kush.
The last Kushite King of the 25th Dynasty was Taharqa’s nephew Tanutamen who rallied forces into Egypt and retook Waset (Luxor), but was then confronted by the mightier military force of the Assyrian army that eventually defeated him. Tanutamen retreated back to Kush after his defeat, and consequently, the Assyrians became the first foreign army to occupy Waset (Luxor).
Dynasty 26 was established by Psametik I in 658 B.C.E., with the help of Greek mercenaries Psametik managed to defeat and drive out the Assyrians. It was during this dynasty that many Greek foreigners were introduced to Kemetic society and knowledge; both Thales (c.a. 636-546 B.C.E.) and Pythagoras (c.a. 582-507 B.C.E.) studied and lived in Kemet.
By 525 B.C.E. the Persian Cambyses II and his army conquered Kemet and made the nation a part of the Persian Empire. However, after more than a century of Persian rule in 404 B.C.E. Amyrtaeus or Amytravious retook Kemet from the Persians and moved the capital to Sais in the Western Delta.68
The Persians returned to Egypt in 343 B.C.E. (Dynasty 30) and successfully defeated King Nectanebo II.
This was to be the last time a native Black African (an authentic Egyptian) would rule Egypt. By 332 B.C.E. the Persians are finally defeated for good by the Greeks under Alexander of Macedonia (Alexander the Great). Alexander dies in 323 B.C.E. and one of his generals Ptolemy I becomes his successor, and thereby ushers in the Ptolemaic Dynasty (305-30 B.C.E.). The last Ptolemy was Queen Cleopatra VII, who along with Mark Anthony is defeated by the Roman Octavian. Consequently, Augustus Caesar claims Egypt as a province of Rome.
The Kemetic spiritual practices and culture with its splendid architecture, obscure rituals, obelisks, sphinxes, pyamids and temples filled both the Greeks and Romans with awe and wonder. In fact, the Kemetic culture was so powerful in the ancient world that both the Greeks and the Romans adopted the culture themselves. However, the Greeks and Romans showed no creative power and failed to improve or maintain it, and it eventually became corrupted with Greek, Roman and Asiatic names, mythologies and vague personalities. For example, the Egyptian god of Wisdom Djhuiti, became Hermes Trismegistus (thrice great) to the Greeks and the same god became Mercury to the Romans, each foreign copy expressing the same qualities of the original African version.
During Roman occupation the Egyptian culture spread throughout the Roman Empire which included Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, Britanny and other parts of Europe. To the ancient world Egypt was considered to be the Holiest of Lands - The Land of the Gods.
In the classic book Stolen Legacy, 2001, p.36, author George G.M. James remarked:
“The Nile became a centre for pilgrimages in the ancient world, and the pilgrims who went there and experienced the marvelous revelations and spiritual blessings which it afforded them, returned home with the conviction that the Nile was the home of the most profound religious knowledge.”
Having conquered Egypt and brought it to its knees, for complete social and political control the Roman government would now need to conquer the religious minds of the ancient world with an equally powerful religion of its own. By 325 A.C.E. the Roman Emperor Constantine convened the first Nicaean council in Nicaea, Turkey and declares Christianity the official state religion in 333 A.C.E.
The Christian bishops who met at the Council introduced a new religion which bore similarities to the African concept of the virgin birth, resurrection and salvation, but the new religion lacked significant African spiritual elements, elements that would be later outlawed by the Byzantine emperors. For example, the original Holy Trinity of Auser, Aset and Heru (Osiris, Isis and Horus) became The Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost, and Aset and child Heru (Isis and child Horus) became Madonna and Child.
In 391 A.C.E., Emperor Theodosius bans Egyptian spiritual practices, orders the closing of all Egyptian temples and Christianity spreads more rapidly. During the sixth century A.C.E. (c.a. 527 A.C.E.), Emperor Justinian issues a second edict which closes the last Egyptian temple at Philae, and propagates Christianity among the Nubians. Consequently, with the death of the last Egyptian Priest that could read Mdw Ntr (Hieroglyphics), the African religion sunk into obscurity and was largely forgotten.
The loss of this spiritual system had by far the most devastating and damaging affect on African culture and its offspring worldwide. No other civilization since has managed to achieve the splendor, grandeur, clarity of vision and purpose, and deep sincere spiritual connection and awareness that the Egyptians had. Moreover, Egyptian scientific knowledge and engineering prowess was outstanding and cannot be equaled today. The likes of Pythagoras, Plato, Napoleon, Johann Kepler, Roger Bacon, Copernicus, and Galileo all became important historic scientific movers and shakers after studying the ancient Egyptian arts. It is widely acknowledged, but not often mentioned by historians, that Sir Isaac Newton spent much more of his time studying the ancient Egyptian science of alchemy and number symbolism than he did what would now be modern science, and many of today’s engineers cannot fathom how these Black Africans produced many of their architectural endeavors.
Sir Isaac Newton was a Rosicrucian (an organization that patterned themselves after the Mystery Schools of ancient Egypt) and was identified as being one of their most learned members. In his work Principia Mathematica Newton wrote:
“The Egyptians were the earliest observers of the heavens…For from them it was…that the Greeks, a people more addicted to the study of philology than of nature, derived their first as well as their soundest notions of philosophy; and in the Vestal ceremonies we can recognize the spirit of the Egyptians, who concealed mysteries that were above the capacity of the common heard under the veil of religious rites and hieroglyphic symbols.”
It's little wonder then that the Romans were so desperate to bring this great civilization to an end in such an absolute and brutal fashion, this would ensure complete social and political control over the masses of its empire, and Africans in particular. The Romans were so desperate, in fact, that in 391 B.C.E. the Christian Roman emperor Theodosius decreed that “All that was ancient was pagan and therefore sinful.” Consequently, the Library of Alexander - which housed more than 700,000 Egyptian papyrus scrolls - was burnt to the ground by Christian fanatics. Whether this vast amount of ancient papyrus was sinful or not, was not really the point and was used merely as a smoke screen for more sinister intentions, and this was to ensure that the huge body of ancient knowledge and wisdom would be forever buried and out of reach of the mass population.
After this abolishment of knowledge by the Roman Christians, as to be expected, the world was thrown into ignorance and darkness. Christianity was force fed to the non-literate masses, whilst a relative few elite such as noblemen, lords and religious leaders had access to education and could read and write. These fortunate elite whilst propagating Christianity around the world publicly would secretly study ancient teachings also known as gnosis or “true knowledge.” The ancient teachings encouraged “knowledge of self” which led to awareness of the powers of god that lies within each individual, and this was expressed in the myths of Ausar (Osiris) and Heru (Horus). There were no intermediaries as you find in the Christian religion, whereby salvation could only be gained through Jesus the Christ, the Pope or some other external figure.
Fortunately, rescue from this intellectual darkness came in the form of a brilliant Black race of North Africans known as the Moors.
As mentioned earlier, during Egyptian periods of invasion, occupation and internal disputes many Africans left Egypt and travelled toward inner Africa. However, some also fled to the regions of Arabia, Asia Minor and Mauritania in North Africa. The natives of Mauritania were known as the Moors, and in the 8th century A.C.E., under the leadership of General Tarik ibn Ziyad, an army of 10,000 Moors crossed over Africa and swiftly conquered Spain. The knowledge that they took with them was the Egyptian wisdom teachings of their ancestors which they had preserved.
The question of these early invaders’s ethnicity is easily answered by the following observation from a primary Christian source Primera Cronica General of Alfonso X:
“Their faces were as black as pitch, the handsomest amongst them was as black as a cooking pot.”
Under the occupation of the Black Moors Spain quickly became a famous centre of learning. Libraries were established and science and learning enthusiastically cultivated. The schools at Cordova, Toledo, Seville and Saragossa were held in high esteem throughout the medieval world. Spain attracted students from all over the west whereby knowledge of medicine, surgery, astronomy and mathematics were disseminated in the ancient Arabic language.
Indeed, the Moors were directly responsible for ushering in the European Renaissance that brought Europe out of the ignorant illiterate gloom of the Middle Ages. Roger Bacon, Johann Kepler, and Copernicus and others obtained their science through Arab or Berber sources.
In 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte, under the orders of the French government, set sail from the south of France to Egypt with a fleet of 328 ships and 35,000 soldiers. The plan was to extend the French empire into India by building a canal across the Isthmus of Suez which would thereby connect the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, shorten the distance from France to India, and consequently pave the way for worldwide domination.
Napoleon had also brought with him an elite corps of 175 scholars known as “savants” that brought with them a large collection of books on Egypt, and numerous supplies of sophisticated scientific equipment and artistic material. This was for the purpose of providing Napoleon with a cultural and technological background on the region. At that time Egypt was ruled by foreign mercenaries for the Turkish empire known as Mamelukes. On July 12, 1798 Napoleon’s army and the Mamelukes met in battle at the Giza Plateau, in a war known as the “Battle of the Pyramids.” The Mamelukes huge army proved no-match for Napoleon’s superior firepower of cannons and rifles, and within two hours Napoleon’s army had killed more than two thousand Mamelukes and was said to have lost only twenty men.
Statue of Kemetic Pharaoh Senwosret I, 12th Dynasty, holding to Ankhs (an Ankh is a symbol of life).
Amenemhat I, 12th Dynasty. Exhibited at the British Museum in London, England.
Sculptured portrait of the Kemetic Pharaoh Sesostris III, 12th Dynasty.
Musicians at a banquet. Mural from the tomb of Rekhmire, vizier under Thutmosis III 1490-1439 B.C.E. and Amenophis II 1439-1413 B.C.E.
Pair Statue of Nebsen and Nebet-ta. Dahamasha, Egypt, ca. 1400-1352 B.C.E.
Napoleon’s army conquered Cairo after another battle with the Mamelukes on July 21, 1798, and soon after established an “Institute of Egypt” for the commission of scientists and artists special purposes.
Following close behind Napoleon was the British Admiral Lord Nelson who had also amassed a huge fleet and was in Egypt. On August 1, 1798 Napoleon suffered his first defeat to Nelson in the famous “Battle of the Nile.” Consequently, Nelson established a blockade in order to cut Napoleon’s supply lines from France and Malta.
Although Napoleon’s army continued to engage in battle with the Turks and British, the commission of scientists and artists continued their work throughout for three years, following the French army as they continued their way to Upper Egypt to the boarders of Aswan. When there was an attack the army would form fighting squares around the savants ten soldiers deep.
In 1799, the French General Desaix discovered the Temple of Dendera, which held a wondrous circular zodiac in the ceiling, now known as the Dendera Zodiac. The zodiac was dynamited off the ceiling by the general’s army and shipped to France, where it was later sold to Louis XVIII for 150,000 francs. Today it is held in the Louvre Museum.
In the same year a more significant discovery was unearthed by a member of Captain Pierre Bouchards’s engineering corps. It was a black basalt tablet with carved inscriptions, and it was found half buried in soil near the town of Rosetta. This stone tablet was to be later called the “Rosetta Stone”, and it was inscribed with three translations of text in three columns, Hieroglyphs (Medu Netcher) at the top, Demotic (a late cursive form of Medu Netcher) in the middle, and Greek at the bottom. The best preserved was the Demotic, the Greek portion was partially damaged, and two thirds of the Medu Netcher had been destroyed. However, despite the damage the stone provided an invaluable and crucial key to deciphering Medu Netcher. The Greek portion was easily translated, and it was discovered to be a decree written in 196 B.C.E. to commemorate the crowning of Ptolemy V. Over the following years Demotic was eventually deciphered, however, Medu Netcher remained undecipherable for almost a quarter of a century.
A little earlier before the discovery of the Rosetta Stone Napoleon had returned home to France, and successfully orchestrated a coup d’état on November 9, 1799, and was consequently named the First Consul the following day. By 1804 he had become emperor of France.
Meanwhile, the battles in Egypt with the British and Mamelukes, along with their Russian allies, ultimately proved too much for Napoleon’s army that eventually negotiated terms of surrender with the British. One of the major terms imposed by the British was that the French relinquished all the Egyptian artifacts that they had found. The French flatly refused, although a compromise was eventually reached. However, the British insisted that the French gave them the Rosetta Stone, a demand that the French firmly declined. The stone was in the possession of General Menou in Alexandria. Determined to acquire the stone, a British colonel by the name of Thomas Turner and a band of men, entered Menou’s property one night in the cover of darkness and stole the precious tablet.
Satisfied, the British allowed the French to return home with their drawings, notes and some artifacts. These possessions would later be what were used to produce a 19-volume master-piece entitled Description de I’Egypte. This document helped to make the French one the forerunners with regards to archaeological study, and formally legitimized the study of Egyptology. It also helped to end the myth of ancient Greek superiority over Egypt. One of the most famous names to come out of this work was the artist Vivant Denon, who with Napoleon Bonaparte was made honorary members of the American Academy of Arts.
Although, with the help of the Description de I’Egypte, the world was afforded some exciting insight into Egypt, the Egyptian language “Medu Netcher” still remained unreadable. In 1822, twenty three years after the Rosetta Stones’ discovery a Frenchmen by the name of Jean Francois Champollion and an African-American by the name of Norbert Rillieux (sugar refinery), who worked with him for ten years, deciphered the hieroglyphic alphabet. The international glory which resulted from this success spurred the government to finance a 17 month expedition to Egypt in 1828 which allowed Champollion an opportunity to conduct primary (first hand) research. In 1831 Champollion’s efforts were rewarded by being appointed the first professor of Egyptology at the College de France. One year later, however, his career was abruptly ended when he died at the age of 42.
Kemet has had five female rulers within its so-called dynastic period, and there were typically two reasons for this, these were:
1) The son was too young to rule;
2) The king died with no male heir.
The female rulers would take the throne in order to provide political stability for the above reasons, it was not intentionally a part of ancient Egypt’s system of government, and female rule was very much the exception rather than the rule in desperate times. However, women were always central to Egypt’s political stability whether as rulers or not. The royal line was passed from female to female, so the male had to marry the female royal line in order to be a legitimate ruler. If you did not marry the female princess or queen then you could not become the king or ruler. The crown was bestowed by the women, and they always sanctioned the transfer of power. Women were the keepers of the stability and culture.
One of those female rulers, and perhaps the most popular, was Hatshepsut. In the 18th dynasty, her husband, Thutmoses II, passed away with no male heirs old enough to rule, so she became the ruler and stabilised the throne. Her legacy is more well known because of her great surviving monuments, such as the towering temple structure Djeser-Djeseru, which means the “sacred of the most sacred”, it is also known as “the temple of a million years” and is dedicated to the god Amen. It is one of the most powerful structures anywhere in Egypt and the world over. She is also responsible for a magnificent 197 ft and 300 ton Teken or so-called obelisk to the Greeks.
In order to understand how this woman achieved such greatness it is important from the outset to set out the differences between traditional African women with its Indo-European counterpart. Throughout its history the Indo-European society has had a patriarchal cultural philosophy. The early European being largely nomadic meant travelling long distances looking and hunting for food, and therefore they placed the most value on physical strength. European women were never important because in a nomadic society what the European have always placed more highly were young male warriors who were typically more physically stronger than the women or elders.
For example, what we find in the European cradle is systematic infanticide (killing of babies) that were, in their mind, useless mouths to feed. Archaeological finds today indicate that wherever the Romans went you see a large number of infants that were no more than a few months old, who were killed. From their point of view in a place where food was scarce they did not see value in children or elders. They were systematically killed and disposed of because they contributed nothing to the society.
In complete contrast in the African tradition the real source of authority was the female; women played a central role in society and civilisation. The Africans emerged and grew in an area with plenty of vegetation and also developed a farming system which meant a surplus of food.
So there was no reason to kill children, or undermine women or elders. The further we go back we see complete egalitarian societies amongst the small statured people who represent the oldest human population on the globe. Whether they are the Efé, the San, the Khoi or the [Batwa] that generally average a height of 4ft.10in. They developed societies which were so harmonious that they never even had a ranking system - no chiefs, no kings, no high officials, there is no evidence of wife abuse or abuse of men, for that matter. None of these groups had a term to describe the act of rape because it did not occur in their society. If it did, a group would have a term in their language to describe it.
These early groups laid the foundation for what we would call today a “civilised” society, in other words, harmonious and peaceful relations between people and between people and their environment. They had two great laws:
1) Ecological law: Do unto nature as you would have nature do unto you;
2) Ethical law: There is complete harmony and reprocity among people in that you receive and give in equal measure.
These early groups did not have elaborate structures such as temples and pyramids but they had harmony amongst themselves and with their environment, and this represents the highest quality of a “civilised” society. This has been the foundation of high level civilisations that have come along later. The same principles showed up in Egypt, Nubia and Kush you do not see anything that women could not do, they were wheeling and dealing in the market place, they were the natural heirs who received the property in the family, and we can see this in the art, burial artefacts, and literature. The Greek historian Herodotus (ca. 450 B.C.E.) expressed surprise at the role that the African women played when he visited Egypt, when he remarked:
“... women go out to the town square and retail goods, while men stay at home and do the weaving...”
During Dynasty 18 the center of government in Egypt was Luxor. The Africans called it Wa-Set meaning “The Septer”, and it was part of the ancient site of Thebes. In the reign of Amenhotep III a huge temple was built for the god Amun and was altered by succeeding pharaohs.
This was called the Ipet Isut or Karnak (following page) by the Arabs. Ipet Isut meant “the most select of places,” or “the holiest of places,” and it was the center for religion and education. It was occupied by an elite faculty of priests, and some scholars have estimated that at one time Ipet Isut held more than 80,000 students.
In Stolen Legacy, James provides a wonderful description of Ipet Isut:
“….As mighty as the Temple of Luxor was, it was exceeded in magnitude and grandeur by that of Carnak [Karnak.]The distance between these two great structures was a mile and a half. Along this avenue was a double row of Sphinxes, placed twelve feet apart, and the width of the avenue was sixty feet.
When in perfect state this avenue presented the most extraordinary entrance that the world has ever seen. If we had the power to picture from the field of imagination the grand processions of Neophytes constantly passing through and taking part in the ceremonies of Initiation, we would be powerless to produce the grandeur of the surroundings, and the imposing sight of colour and magnificent trappings of those who took part. Neither can we produce the music that kept the vast number of people in steady marching order. Crude it might have been to the cultivated ear of the 20th century. But could not the palpitating strain sung by massed voices on the lapse of time, whose history launches the profoundest aspirations of the human heart, like the trend of a mighty river, because the grand currents of Universal Law, imparting the desire to that Shadowy Past, as it steps forth from the pages of history, dim with age? Egypt must have been, when these Temples were built, a martial nation for records of her warlike deeds are perpetuated in deeply engraved tablets which even now, excite the admiration of the best Judges of archaeological remains. She was also a highly civilized nation, and of a nature that could bear the expenditure which always attends the culture of the Arts. She surpassed in her astonishing architecture, all other nations that have existed upon the earth.”
The ancient Egyptians firmly believed in the immortality of the soul as being of the highest importance. They believed that if the soul was liberated from its bodily shackles it would enable the person to become godlike on earth. The salvation of the soul would thereby lead to freedom from the cycles of reincarnation or rebirth. Their education consisted of, among other things, the seven Liberal Arts which were Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic, Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy and Music or Harmony. Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic were moral disciplines designed to purge away irrational human tendencies. Admission to a higher degree of esoteric education was reserved for those that had demonstrated proficiency in these areas.
Geometry and Arithmetic were sciences of transcendental space and numeration, the comprehension of which provided the key to problems of one’s being. Astronomy was about the destiny of individuals and awareness of the latent (hidden) forces in man. Music or Harmony was the actual living practice of philosophy in order to adjust oneself into harmony with God.
According to James the Neophyte was also required to manifest these following soul attributes:
“(1) Control of thought (2) Control of action, the unswerving righteousness of thought and action (3) Steadfastness of purpose (4) Identity with spiritual life or higher ideals, an attribute attained when the individual had gained conquest over the passionate nature (5) Evidence of having a mission in life (6) Evidence of a call to spiritual Orders or the Priesthood in the Mysteries: The combination of which was equivalent to Prudence or a deep insight and graveness that befitted the faculty of Seership (7) Freedom from resentment, when under the experience of persecution and wrong. This was known as courage (8) Confidence in the power of the master (as Teacher) (9) Confidence in one’s own ability to learn (10) Readiness or preparedness for initiation.
There has always been this principal of the ancient Mysteries of Egypt: “When the pupil is ready, then the master will appear.”
Menmare Seti I (1306 B.C.E.) was the son of the dynasty 19 founder Menpehtyre Rameses I who had reigned only briefly. Seti was responsible for initiating a period of Kemetic revival which was to be later further continued by his famous revivalist son Usermare Ramses II (the pharaoh of the biblical exodus.)
Under Seti’s reign extensive military campaigns outside of Egypt’s borders were conducted, and several impressive buildings were constructed, as well as the refurbishing of old ones. His marvelous temple at Abydos was known as ‘The House of Millions of Years,’ and was dedicated to the god Ausar (Osiris), the ‘Lord of Eternity.’ As well as the temples generally well preserved state and beauty - the walls beautifully adorned with images depicting the god Ausar and goddess Auset (Isis); one very interesting feature is what is known as the ‘Abydos King List.’
Kemetic Mummy Mask of Khonsu. 19th Dynasty, Rammeside Dynasty.
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (reigned ca. 2046 BC - 1995 BC), 11th Dynasty.
The list features 120 gods on one side of a gallery wall, and 76 pharaohs on the other, starting with the king Menes of the 1st Dynasty (c.a. 3000 B.C.E.) and ending with Seti himself and his young son Rameses II.107 Hancock provides a wonderful description of this magnificent gallery:
“To pass through the Gallery was to pass through time itself. On the wall to my left was a list of 120 of the gods of Ancient Egypt, together with the names of their principal sanctuaries. On my right, covering an area of perhaps ten feet by six feet, were the names of the 76 pharaohs who had preceded Seti I to the throne; each name was carved in hieroglyphs inside an oval cartouche…Glowing with colours of molten gold, it was designed to be read from left to right and was divided into five vertical and three horizontal registers. It covered a grand expanse of almost 1700 years, beginning around 3000 B.C. with the reign of Menes, first king of the First Dynasty, and ending with Seti’s own reign around 1300 B.C.”
Usermare Rameses II (c.a. 1292 - 1225 B.C.E.) or more commonly “Rameses the Great” is the most recognized figure of the 19th Dynasty, who was actually deified whilst Kemet was still under his rulership.
Kings List at the temple of Abydos, known as ‘The House of Millions of Years,’ and dedicated to the god Wsr (Ausar or Osiris), the ‘Lord of Eternity.
Usermare Rameses II (c.a. 1292 - 1225 B.C.E.) or “Rameses the Great”.
Under his reign Kemet experienced enormous prosperity and a stable government. He was responsible for exceptional building projects, and a significant resurgence in literature and art, and he also restored the dominance of the deity Amen. His chief wife was queen Nefertari, and during his 67 years of rulership he expanded on the work of Amenhotep III’s Ipet Isut (Karnak) and added the Great Courtyard, completed the Great Hall of the temple of Amen-Ra, and built an impressive outer pylon. There are also two colossal statues of Rameses flanking the entrance to the huge temple. One of his most spectacular achievements, however, was the construction of the temple at Abu Simbel, built near the border of Kemet and Nubia.
Another often overlooked and major clue as to the ethnicity of the ancient Egyptians is their hairstyles and hair texture. These African hairstyles are often braided and cornrowed, and many museums house afro hair picks used by the kings and queens and, of course, the general population. According to Browder “there are hundreds of mummies, statues, wigs and drawings which clearly illustrate the texture and hairstyles of African people who lived in the Nile Valley in ancient times. These images are often suppressed or replaced with inaccurate ones that create a false historical perspective of a truly African characteristic.”
Ancient Egyptian or Kemetic Afro Pick or Comb. Kemetic King Amenhotep III with afro hair, ca. 1391 B.C.E.
Top to bottom: Kemetic Princess, ca. 1350 B.C.E. Kemetic queen with fabric wig.
Modern African American woman with braids. Actress Elizabeth Taylor with African braids for the 1963 movie Cleopatra.
Kemetic Pharaoh Amenemhet III, ca. 1890 B.C.E. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
Spencer Wells, The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey, Random House Trade; Reprint edition (Feb 2004).
Anthony T. Browder, Nile Valley Contributions to Civilisation: Exploding the Myths Vol.1, The Institute of Karmic Guidance, February 2009.
UNESCO, The Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of Meroitic Script, January 28- February 3, 1974 (Paris: UNESCO, 1978).
Professor Manu Ampim’s website: www.manuampim.com. (2011).
Robert Bauval, Thomas Brophy, Black Genesis: The Prehistoric Origins of Ancient Egypt.
Ivan Van Sertima,They Came Before Columbus, Random House, New York, USA, 2003.
Asa G. Hilliard III, Larry Williams, Nia Damali, The Teachings of Ptah Hotep: The Oldest Book in the World, Blackwood Press, 1987, USA
Maulana Karenga, Selections from the Husia: Sacred Wisdom of Ancient Egypt, The University of Sankore Press, Los Angeles, USA, 1984.
Runoko Rashidi’s website: www.cwo.com (2011).
Graham Hancock, Fingerprints of the Gods, Three Rivers Press, New York, 1995.
Magical Egypt, John Anthony West (Documentary).
Cheikh Anta Diop, Civilisation or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthroplogy, Lawrence Hill.
James Small, Christianity, Judaism & Islam: Fragments of African Spirituality - DVD.
John G. Jackson, Christianity Before Christ, American Atheist Press, USA, 2002.
Diodorus Siculus Library of History, Vol. II, Book III, trans. By C.H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library, Boston, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1933-35, pp. 89-95).
Lady Lugard, A Tropical Dependency, London: Frank Cass and Co., 1964, pp.17-19).
George G.M. James, Stolen Legacy, African American Images, USA, 2001.
Ivan Van Sertima, Golden Age of the Moor, Transaction Publishers, USA, 2009.
Herodotus, The Histories. A new translation by Robin Waterfield, Oxford University Press, New York, 2008.
Interview with Professor Manu Ampim on the African History Network Show, Blogtalk Radio, (no.1295488), 2011.
In this lecture Anthony T. Browder, author of "Nile Valley Contributions To Civilization" and "From The Browder File" delivers a dynamic lecture on the prophecies of ancient Kemet.
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This spectacular documentary examines the 'Symbolist' school of Egyptology, an alternative interpretation of ancient Egyptian culture advanced by the French scholar and philosopher, R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz.